☆MARTIAL ARTS BOOK:AIKIDO STUDENT HANDBOOK:PHILOSOPHY%SPIRIT+ETIQUETTE+TRAINING

  • ☆ MARTIAL ARTS BOOK:AIKIDO STUDENT HANDBOOK:PHILOSOPHY%SPIRIT+ETIQUETTE+TRAINING ☆ Greg O'Connor The Aikido Student Handbook: A Guide to the Philosophy, Spirit, Etiquette and Training Methods of Aikido ISBN-13: 978-1883319045, ISBN-10: 1883319048 ------ Product description In the past twenty years, the Aikido population has increased tremendously in the United States, primarily because of the vast number of comprehensive American instructors. Greg O'Connor walks the reader through the history and philosophy of aikido. He then, in short chapters peppered with photos and illustrations, answers common questions about etiquette, training methods, and, in general, "what to expect" when practicing aikido. ------- REVIEW: 5 out of 5 St*rs!!! "The purpose of studying aikido is not only to gain physical ability. We practice for the deeper reason to become better human beings. For that reason I highly recommend this Aikido Student Handbook by Mr. Greg O'Connor. I believe this book will be beneficial not only for those who are just starting Aikido, but for those already involved and particularly for those who hold teaching positions." - Yoshimitsu Yamada About the Author Greg O'Connor is founder and chief instructor of Aikido Centers of New Jersey/Aikido Centers Inc. Dedicated to Aikido for over 30 years he is one of the few full-time professional Aikido teachers in the United States. He currently holds the rank of 6th Dan and certified through Aikido World Headquarters, Tokyo (Aikikai Hombu). ------- About this item Product information PublisherTuttle Publishing Publication dateNovember 15, 2003 LanguageEnglish Product Dimensions6.8 x 0.5 x 9.8 inches Shipping Weight 2 lbs. Book length192 ISBN-100804834903 ISBN-13978-0804834902 About this item Product information PublisherBlue Snake Books Publication dateDecember 9, 1993 LanguageEnglish Product Dimensions5.5 x 0.3 x 8.5 inches Shipping Weight 1 lb. Book length112 ISBN-101883319048 ISBN-13978-1883319045 SOME GENERAL INFO ABOUT Aikido From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation, search Aikido (合気道) A version of the "four-direction throw" (shihōnage) with standing attacker and seated defender, Focus Grappling and softness Country of origin Japan Creator Morihei Ueshiba Famous practitioners Kisshomaru Ueshiba, Moriteru Ueshiba, Christian Tissier, Morihiro Saito, Koichi Tohei, Yoshimitsu Yamada, Gozo Shioda, Mitsugi Saotome, Steven Seagal Ancestor arts Daitō-ryū Aiki-jūjutsuPlay mediaUeshiba Mitsuteru at the 55th All Japan Aikido Demonstration held at the Nippon Budokan (May 2017) Aikido (Japanese: 合気道 Hepburn: aikidō) [aikiꜜdoː] is a modern Japanese martial art developed by Morihei Ueshiba as a synthesis of his martial studies, philosophy, and religious beliefs, Aikido is often translated as "the way of unifying (with) life energy"[1] or as "the way of harmonious spirit",[2] Ueshiba's goal was to create an art that practitioners could use to defend themselves while also protecting their attacker from injury,[3][4] Aikido's techniques include: irimi (entering), and tenkan (turning) movements (that redirect the opponent's attack momentum), various types of throws and joint locks,[5] Aikido derives mainly from the martial art of Daitō-ryū Aiki-jūjutsu, but began to diverge from it in the late 1920s, partly due to Ueshiba's involvement with the Ōmoto-kyō religion, Ueshiba's early students' documents bear the term aiki-jūjutsu,[6] Ueshiba's senior students have different approaches to aikido, depending partly on when they studied with him, Today aikido is found all over the world in a number of styles, with broad ranges of interpretation and emphasis, However, they all share techniques formulated by Ueshiba and most have concern for the well-being of the attacker,Contents [hide] 1 Etymology and basic philosophy 2 History 2,1 Initial development 2,2 Religious influences 2,3 International dissemination 2,4 Proliferation of independent organizations 3 Ki 4 Training 4,1 Fitness 4,2 Roles of uke and tori 4,3 Initial attacks 4,4 Basic techniques 4,5 Implementations 4,6 Weapons 4,7 Multiple attackers and randori 4,8 Injuries 4,9 Mental training 5 Uniforms and ranking 6 Criticisms 7 References 8 External linksEtymology and basic philosophy[edit] "Aikidō" written with "ki" in its old character form The word "aikido" is formed of three kanji: 合 – ai – joining, unifying, combining, fitting 気 – ki – spirit, energy, mood, morale 道 – dō – way, path The term aiki does not readily appear in the Japanese language outside the scope of budō, This has led to many possible interpretations of the word, 合 is mainly used in compounds to mean 'combine, unite, join together, meet', examples being 合同 (combined/united), 合成 (composition), 結合 (unite/combine/join together), 連合 (union/alliance/association), 統合 (combine/unify), and 合意 (mutual agreement), There is an idea of reciprocity, 知り合う (to get to know one another), 話し合い (talk/discussion/negotiation), and 待ち合わせる (meet by appointment), 気 is often used to describe a feeling, as in X気がする ('I feel X', as in terms of thinking but with less cognitive reasoning), and 気持ち (feeling/sensation); it is used to mean energy or force, as in 電気 (electricity) and 磁気 (magnetism); it can also refer to qualities or aspects of people or things, as in 気質 (spirit/trait/temperament), The term dō is also found in martial arts such as judo and kendo, and in various non-martial arts, such as Japanese calligraphy (shodō), flower arranging (kadō) and tea ceremony (chadō or sadō), Therefore, from a purely literal interpretation, aikido is the "Way of combining forces", in that the term aiki refers to the martial arts principle or tactic of blending with an attacker's movements for the purpose of controlling their actions with minimal effort,[7] One applies aiki by understanding the rhythm and intent of the attacker to find the optimal position and timing to apply a counter-technique, History[edit] Ueshiba in Tokyo in 1939 Aikido was created by Morihei Ueshiba (植芝 盛平 Ueshiba Morihei, 14 December 1883 – 26 April 1969), referred to by some aikido practitioners as Ōsensei (Great Teacher),[8] The term aikido was coined in the twentieth century,[9] Ueshiba envisioned aikido not only as the synthesis of his martial training, but as an expression of his personal philosophy of universal peace and reconciliation, During Ueshiba's lifetime and continuing today, aikido has evolved from the aiki that Ueshiba studied into a variety of expressions by martial artists throughout the world,[5] Initial development[edit] Takeda Sōkaku Ueshiba developed aikido primarily during the late 1920s through the 1930s through the synthesis of the older martial arts that he had studied,[10] The core martial art from which aikido derives is Daitō-ryū aiki-jūjutsu, which Ueshiba studied directly with Takeda Sōkaku, the reviver of that art, Additionally, Ueshiba is known to have studied Tenjin Shin'yō-ryū with Tozawa Tokusaburō in Tokyo in 1901, Gotōha Yagyū Shingan-ryū under Nakai Masakatsu in Sakai from 1903 to 1908, and judo with Kiyoichi Takagi (高木 喜代市 Takagi Kiyoichi, 1894–1972) in Tanabe in 1911,[11] The art of Daitō-ryū is the primary technical influence on aikido, Along with empty-handed throwing and joint-locking techniques, Ueshiba incorporated training movements with weapons, such as those for the spear (yari), short staff (jō), and perhaps the bayonet (銃剣 jūken), However, aikido derives much of its technical structure from the art of swordsmanship (kenjutsu),[2][12] Ueshiba moved to Hokkaidō in 1912, and began studying under Takeda Sokaku in 1915, His official association with Daitō-ryū continued until 1937,[10] However, during the latter part of that period, Ueshiba had already begun to distance himself from Takeda and the Daitō-ryū, At that time Ueshiba was referring to his martial art as "Aiki Budō", It is unclear exactly when Ueshiba began using the name "aikido", but it became the official name of the art in 1942 when the Greater Japan Martial Virtue Society (Dai Nippon Butoku Kai) was engaged in a government sponsored reorganization and centralization of Japanese martial arts,[5] Religious influences[edit] Onisaburo Deguchi After Ueshiba left Hokkaidō in 1919, he met and was profoundly influenced by Onisaburo Deguchi, the spiritual leader of the Ōmoto-kyō religion (a neo-Shinto movement) in Ayabe,[13] One of the primary features of Ōmoto-kyō is its emphasis on the attainment of utopia during one's life, This was a great influence on Ueshiba's martial arts philosophy of extending love and compassion especially to those who seek to harm others, Aikido demonstrates this philosophy in its emphasis on mastering martial arts so that one may receive an attack and harmlessly redirect it, In an ideal resolution, not only is the receiver unharmed, but so is the attacker,[14] In addition to the effect on his spiritual growth, the connection with Deguchi gave Ueshiba entry to elite political and military circles as a martial artist, As a result of this exposure, he was able to attract not only financial backing but also gifted students, Several of these students would found their own styles of aikido,[15] International dissemination[edit] Aikido was first brought to the rest of the world in 1951 by Minoru Mochizuki with a visit to France where he introduced aikido techniques to judo students,[16] He was followed by Tadashi Abe in 1952, who came as the official Aikikai Hombu representative, remaining in France for seven years, Kenji Tomiki toured with a delegation of various martial arts through 15 continental states of the United States in 1953,[15][17] Later that year, Koichi Tohei was sent by Aikikai Hombu to Hawaii for a full year, where he set up several dojo, This trip was followed by several further visits and is considered the formal introduction of aikido to the United States, The United Kingdom followed in 1955; Italy in 1964 by Hiroshi Tada; and Germany in 1965 by Katsuaki Asai, Designated "Official Delegate for Europe and Africa" by Morihei Ueshiba, Masamichi Noro arrived in France in September 1961, Seiichi Sugano was appointed to introduce aikido to Australia in 1965, Today there are aikido dojo throughout the world, Proliferation of independent organizations[edit] Further information: Aikido styles See also: List of aikidōka The largest aikido organization is the Aikikai Foundation, which remains under the control of the Ueshiba family, However, aikido has many styles, mostly formed by Morihei Ueshiba's major students,[15] The earliest independent styles to emerge were Yoseikan Aikido, begun by Minoru Mochizuki in 1931,[16] Yoshinkan Aikido, founded by Gozo Shioda in 1955,[18] and Shodokan Aikido, founded by Kenji Tomiki in 1967,[19] The emergence of these styles pre-dated Ueshiba's death and did not cause any major upheavals when they were formalized, Shodokan Aikido, however, was controversial, since it introduced a unique rule-based competition that some felt was contrary to the spirit of aikido,[15] After Ueshiba's death in 1969, two more major styles emerged, Significant controversy arose with the departure of the Aikikai Hombu Dojo's chief instructor Koichi Tohei, in 1974, Tohei left as a result of a disagreement with the son of the founder, Kisshomaru Ueshiba, who at that time headed the Aikikai Foundation, The disagreement was over the proper role of ki development in regular aikido training, After Tohei left, he formed his own style, called Shin Shin Toitsu Aikido, and the organization that governs it, the Ki Society (Ki no Kenkyūkai),[20] A final major style evolved from Ueshiba's retirement in Iwama, Ibaraki and the teaching methodology of long term student Morihiro Saito, It is unofficially referred to as the "Iwama style", and at one point a number of its followers formed a loose network of schools they called Iwama Ryu, Although Iwama style practitioners remained part of the Aikikai until Saito's death in 2002, followers of Saito subsequently split into two groups, One remained with the Aikikai and the other formed the independent Shinshin Aikishuren Kai in 2004 around Saito's son Hitohiro Saito, Today, the major styles of aikido are each run by a separate governing organization, have their own headquarters (本部道場 honbu dōjō) in Japan, and have an international breadth,[15] Ki[edit] This was the kanji for ki until 1946, when it was changed to 気, The study of ki is an important component of aikido, and its study defies categorization as either "physical" or "mental" training, as it encompasses both, The kanji for ki normally is written as 気, It was written as 氣 until the writing reforms after World War II, and this older form still is seen on occasion, The character for ki is used in everyday Japanese terms, such as "health" (元気 genki), or "shyness" (内気 uchiki), Ki has many meanings, including "ambience", "mind", "mood", and "intention", however, in traditional martial arts it is often used to refer to "life energy", Gōzō Shioda's Yoshinkan Aikido, considered one of the "hard styles", largely follows Ueshiba's teachings from before World War II, and surmises that the secret to ki lies in timing and the application of the whole body's strength to a single point,[21] In later years, Ueshiba's application of ki in aikido took on a softer, more gentle feel, This was his Takemusu Aiki and many of his later students teach about ki from this perspective, Koichi Tohei's Ki Society centers almost exclusively around the study of the empirical (albeit subjective) experience of ki with students ranked separately in aikido techniques and ki development,[22] Training[edit] In aikido, as in virtually all Japanese martial arts, there are both physical and mental aspects of training, The physical training in aikido is diverse, covering both general physical fitness and conditioning, as well as specific techniques,[23] Because a substantial portion of any aikido curriculum consists of throws, beginners learn how to safely fall or roll,[23] The specific techniques for attack include both strikes and grabs; the techniques for defense consist of throws and pins, After basic techniques are learned, students study freestyle defense against multiple opponents, and techniques with weapons, Fitness[edit] Ukemi (受け身) is very important for safe practice Physical training goals pursued in conjunction with aikido include controlled relaxation, correct movement of joints such as hips and shoulders, flexibility, and endurance, with less emphasis on strength training, In aikido, pushing or extending movements are much more common than pulling or contracting movements, This distinction can be applied to general fitness goals for the aikido practitioner,[2] In aikido, specific muscles or muscle groups are not isolated and worked to improve tone, mass, or power, Aikido-related training emphasizes the use of coordinated whole-body movement and balance similar to yoga or pilates, For example, many dojos begin each class with warm-up exercises (準備体操 junbi taisō), which may include stretching and ukemi (break falls),[24] Roles of uke and tori[edit] Aikido training is based primarily on two partners practicing pre-arranged forms (kata) rather than freestyle practice, The basic pattern is for the receiver of the technique (uke) to initiate an attack against the person who applies the technique—the 取り tori, or shite 仕手 (depending on aikido style), also referred to as 投げ nage (when applying a throwing technique), who neutralises this attack with an aikido technique,[25] Both halves of the technique, that of uke and that of tori, are considered essential to aikido training,[25] Both are studying aikido principles of blending and adaptation, Tori learns to blend with and control attacking energy, while uke learns to become calm and flexible in the disadvantageous, off-balance positions in which tori places them, This "receiving" of the technique is called ukemi,[25] Uke continuously seeks to regain balance and cover vulnerabilities (e,g,, an exposed side), while tori uses position and timing to keep uke off-balance and vulnerable, In more advanced training, uke will sometimes apply reversal techniques (返し技 kaeshi-waza) to regain balance and pin or throw tori, Ukemi (受身) refers to the act of receiving a technique, Good ukemi involves attention to the technique, the partner and the immediate environment—it is an active rather than a passive receiving of aikido, The fall itself is part of aikido, and is a way for the practitioner to receive, safely, what would otherwise be a devastating strike or throw, Initial attacks[edit] Aikido techniques are usually a defense against an attack, so students must learn to deliver various types of attacks to be able to practice aikido with a partner, Although attacks are not studied as thoroughly as in striking-based arts, sincere attacks (a strong strike or an immobilizing grab) are needed to study correct and effective application of technique,[2] Many of the strikes (打ち uchi) of aikido resemble cuts from a sword or other grasped object, which indicate its origins in techniques intended for armed combat,[2] Other techniques, which explicitly appear to be punches (tsuki), are practiced as thrusts with a knife or sword, Kicks are generally reserved for upper-level variations; reasons cited include that falls from kicks are especially dangerous, and that kicks (high kicks in particular) were uncommon during the types of combat prevalent in feudal Japan, Some basic strikes include: Front-of-the-head strike (正面打ち shōmen'uchi) a vertical knifehand strike to the head, In training, this is usually directed at the forehead or the crown for safety, but more dangerous versions of this attack target the bridge of the nose and the maxillary sinus, Side-of-the-head strike (横面打ち yokomen'uchi) a diagonal knifehand strike to the side of the head or neck, Chest thrust (胸突き mune-tsuki) a punch to the torso, Specific targets include the chest, abdomen, and solar plexus, Same as "middle-level thrust" (中段突き chūdan-tsuki), and "direct thrust" (直突き choku-tsuki), Face thrust (顔面突き ganmen-tsuki) a punch to the face, Same as "upper-level thrust" (上段突き jōdan-tsuki), Beginners in particular often practice techniques from grabs, both because they are safer and because it is easier to feel the energy and lines of force of a hold than a strike, Some grabs are historically derived from being held while trying to draw a weapon; a technique could then be used to free oneself and immobilize or strike the attacker who is grabbing the defender,[2] The following are examples of some basic grabs: Single-hand grab (片手取り katate-dori) one hand grabs one wrist, Both-hands grab (諸手取り morote-dori) both hands grab one wrist, Same as "single hand double-handed grab" (片手両手取り katateryōte-dori) Both-hands grab (両手取り ryōte-dori) both hands grab both wrists, Same as "double single-handed grab" (両片手取り ryōkatate-dori), Shoulder grab (肩取り kata-dori) a shoulder grab, "Both-shoulders-grab" is ryōkata-dori (両肩取り), It is sometimes combined with an overhead strike as Shoulder grab face strike (肩取り面打ち kata-dori men-uchi), Chest grab (胸取り mune-dori or muna-dori) grabbing the (clothing of the) chest, Same as "collar grab" (襟取り eri-dori), Basic techniques[edit] Main article: Aikido techniques Diagram of ikkyō, or "first technique", Yonkyō has a similar mechanism of action, although the upper hand grips the forearm rather than the elbow, The following are a sample of the basic or widely practiced throws and pins, Many of these techniques derive from Daitō-ryū Aiki-jūjutsu, but some others were invented by Morihei Ueshiba, The precise terminology for some may vary between organisations and styles, so what follows are the terms used by the Aikikai Foundation, Note that despite the names of the first five techniques listed, they are not universally taught in numeric order,[26] First technique (一教 (教) ikkyō) a control using one hand on the elbow and one hand near the wrist which leverages uke to the ground,[27] This grip applies pressure into the ulnar nerve at the wrist, Second technique (二教 nikyō) a pronating wristlock that torques the arm and applies painful nerve pressure, (There is an adductive wristlock or Z-lock in ura version,) Third technique (三教 sankyō) a rotational wristlock that directs upward-spiraling tension throughout the arm, elbow and shoulder, Fourth technique (四教 yonkyō) a shoulder control similar to ikkyō, but with both hands gripping the forearm, The knuckles (from the palm side) are applied to the recipient's radial nerve against the periosteum of the forearm bone,[28] Fifth technique (五教 gokyō) visually similar to ikkyō, but with an inverted grip of the wrist, medial rotation of the arm and shoulder, and downward pressure on the elbow, Common in knife and other weapon take-aways, Four-direction throw (四方投げ shihōnage) the hand is folded back past the shoulder, locking the shoulder joint, Forearm return (小手返し kotegaeshi) a supinating wristlock-throw that stretches the extensor digitorum, Breath throw (呼吸投げ kokyūnage) a loosely used term for various types of mechanically unrelated techniques, although they generally do not use joint locks like other techniques,[29] Entering throw (入身投げ iriminage) throws in which tori moves through the space occupied by uke, The classic form superficially resembles a "clothesline" technique, Heaven-and-earth throw (天地投げ tenchinage) beginning with ryōte-dori; moving forward, tori sweeps one hand low ("earth") and the other high ("heaven"), which unbalances uke so that he or she easily topples over, Hip throw (腰投げ koshinage) aikido's version of the hip throw, Tori drops their hips lower than those of uke, then flips uke over the resultant fulcrum, Figure-ten throw (十字投げ jūjinage) or figure-ten entanglement (十字絡み jūjigarami) a throw that locks the arms against each other (the kanji for "10" is a cross-shape: 十),[30] Rotary throw (回転投げ kaitennage) Tori sweeps the arm back until it locks the shoulder joint, then uses forward pressure to throw,[31] Implementations[edit] Diagram showing two versions of the ikkyō technique: one moving forward (the omote version) and one moving backward (the ura version), See text for more details, Aikido is more of a defensive martial art, It makes use of body movement (tai sabaki) to blend with uke, For example, an "entering" (irimi) technique consists of movements inward towards uke, while a "turning" (転換 tenkan) technique uses a pivoting motion,[32] Additionally, an "inside" (内 uchi) technique takes place in front of uke, whereas an "outside" (外 soto) technique takes place to their side; a "front" (表 omote) technique is applied with motion to the front of uke, and a "rear" (裏 ura) version is applied with motion towards the rear of uke, usually by incorporating a turning or pivoting motion, Finally, most techniques can be performed while in a seated posture (seiza), Techniques where both uke and tori are standing are called tachi-waza, techniques where both st*rt off in seiza are called suwari-waza, and techniques performed with uke standing and tori sitting are called hanmi handachi (半身半立),[33] Thus, from fewer than twenty basic techniques, there are thousands of possible implementations, For instance, ikkyō can be applied to an opponent moving forward with a strike (perhaps with an ura type of movement to redirect the incoming force), or to an opponent who has already struck and is now moving back to reestablish distance (perhaps an omote-waza version), Specific aikido kata are typically referred to with the formula "attack-technique(-modifier)", For instance, katate-dori ikkyō refers to any ikkyō technique executed when uke is holding one wrist, This could be further specified as katate-dori ikkyō omote, referring to any forward-moving ikkyō technique from that grab, Atemi (当て身) are strikes (or feints) employed during an aikido technique, Some view atemi as attacks against "vital points" meant to cause damage in and of themselves, For instance, Gōzō Shioda described using atemi in a brawl to quickly down a gang's leader,[21] Others consider atemi, especially to the face, to be methods of distraction meant to enable other techniques, A strike, whether or not it is blocked, can st*rtle the target and break their concentration, The target may become unbalanced in attempting to avoid the blow, for example by jerking the head back, which may allow for an easier throw,[33] Many sayings about atemi are attributed to Morihei Ueshiba, who considered them an essential element of technique,[34] Weapons[edit] Disarming an attacker using a "sword taking" (太刀取り tachi-dori) technique, Weapons training in aikido traditionally includes the short staff (jō), wooden sword (bokken), and knife (tantō),[35] Some schools incorporate firearm-disarming techniques, Both weapon-taking and weapon-retention are taught, Some schools, such as the Iwama style of Morihiro Saito, usually spend substantial time with bokken and jō, practised under the names aiki-ken, and aiki-jō, respectively, The founder developed many of the empty-handed techniques from traditional sword and spear movements, Consequently, the practice of the weapons arts gives insight into the origin of techniques and movements, and reinforces the concepts of distance, timing, foot movement, presence and connectedness with one's training partner(s),[36] Multiple attackers and randori[edit] One feature of aikido is training to defend against multiple attackers, often called taninzudori, or taninzugake, Freestyle practice with multiple attackers, called randori (乱取) or jiyūwaza (自由技), is a key part of most curricula and is required for the higher level ranks,[37] Randori exercises a person's ability to intuitively perform techniques in an unstructured environment,[37] Strategic choice of techniques, based on how they reposition the student relative to other attackers, is important in randori training, For instance, an ura technique might be used to neutralise the current attacker while turning to face attackers approaching from behind,[2] In Shodokan Aikido, randori differs in that it is not performed with multiple persons with defined roles of defender and attacker, but between two people, where both participants attack, defend, and counter at will, In this respect it resembles judo randori,[19][38] Injuries[edit] In applying a technique during training, it is the responsibility of tori to prevent injury to uke by employing a speed and force of application that is commensurate with their partner's proficiency in ukemi,[25] Injuries (especially those to the joints), when they do occur in aikido, are often the result of tori misjudging the ability of uke to receive the throw or pin,[39][40] A study of injuries in the martial arts showed that the type of injuries varied considerably from one art to the other,[41] Soft tissue injuries are one of the most common types of injuries found within aikido,[41] as well as joint strain and stubbed fingers and toes,[40] Several deaths from head-and-neck injuries, caused by aggressive shihōnage in a senpai/kōhai hazing context, have been reported,[39] Mental training[edit] Aikido training is mental as well as physical, emphasizing the ability to relax the mind and body even under the stress of dangerous situations,[42] This is necessary to enable the practitioner to perform the bold enter-and-blend movements that underlie aikido techniques, wherein an attack is met with confidence and directness,[43] Morihei Ueshiba once remarked that one "must be willing to receive 99% of an opponent's attack and st*re death in the face" in order to execute techniques without hesitation,[44] As a martial art concerned not only with fighting proficiency but with the betterment of daily life, this mental aspect is of key importance to aikido practitioners,[45] Uniforms and ranking[edit] Hakama are folded after practice to preserve the pleats, Aikido practitioners (commonly called aikidōka outside Japan) generally progress by promotion through a series of "grades" (kyū), followed by a series of "degrees" (dan), pursuant to formal testing procedures, Some aikido organizations use belts to distinguish practitioners' grades, often simply white and black belts to distinguish kyu and dan grades, though some use various belt colors, Testing requirements vary, so a particular rank in one organization is not comparable or interchangeable with the rank of another,[2] Some dojos do not allow students to take the test to obtain a dan rank unless they are 16 or older, rank belt color type kyūwhite mudansha / yūkyūsha danblack yūdansha The uniform worn for practicing aikido (aikidōgi) is similar to the training uniform (keikogi) used in most other modern martial arts; simple trousers and a wraparound jacket, usually white, Both thick ("judo-style"), and thin ("karate-style") cotton tops are used,[2] Aikido-specific tops are available with shorter sleeves which reach to just below the elbow, Most aikido systems add a pair of wide pleated black or indigo trousers called a hakama (used also in Naginatajutsu, kendo, and iaido), In many schools, its use is reserved for practitioners with (dan) ranks or for instructors, while others allow all practitioners to wear a hakama regardless of rank,[2] Criticisms[edit] The most common criticism of aikido is that it suffers from a lack of realism in training, The attacks initiated by uke (and which tori must defend against) have been criticized as being "weak", "sloppy", and "little more than caricatures of an attack",[46][47] Weak attacks from uke allow for a conditioned response from tori, and result in underdevelopment of the skills needed for the safe and effective practice of both partners,[46] To counteract this, some styles allow students to become less compliant over time but, in keeping with the core philosophies, this is after having demonstrated proficiency in being able to protect themselves and their training partners, Shodokan Aikido addresses the issue by practising in a competitive format,[19] Such adaptations are debated between styles, with some maintaining that there is no need to adjust their methods because either the criticisms are unjustified, or that they are not training for self-defense or combat effectiveness, but spiritual, fitness or other reasons,[48] Another criticism pertains to the shift in training focus after the end of Ueshiba's seclusion in Iwama from 1942 to the mid-1950s, as he increasingly emphasized the spiritual and philosophical aspects of aikido, As a result, strikes to vital points by tori, entering (irimi) and initiation of techniques by tori, the distinction between omote (front side) and ura (back side) techniques, and the use of weapons, were all de-emphasized or eliminated from practice, Some Aikido practitioners feel that lack of training in these areas leads to an overall loss of effectiveness,[49] Conversely, some styles of aikido receive criticism for not placing enough importance on the spiritual practices emphasized by Ueshiba, According to Minoru Shibata of Aikido Journal, "O-Sensei's aikido was not a continuation and extension of the old and has a distinct discontinuity with past martial and philosophical concepts,"[50] That is, that aikido practitioners who focus on aikido's roots in traditional jujutsu or kenjutsu are diverging from what Ueshiba taught, Such critics urge practitioners to embrace the assertion that "[Ueshiba's] transcendence to the spiritual and universal reality were the fundamentals [sic] of the paradigm that he demonstrated,"[50] References[edit]Jump up ^ Saotome, Mitsugi (1989), The Principles of Aikido, Boston, Massachusetts: Shambhala, p, 222, ISBN 978-0-87773-409-3, ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i j Westbrook, Adele; Ratti, Oscar (1970), Aikido and the Dynamic Sphere, Tokyo, Japan: Charles E, Tuttle Company, pp, 16–96, ISBN 978-0-8048-0004-4, Jump up ^ Sharif, Suliaman (2009), 50 Martial Arts Myths, New Media Entertainment, p, 135, ISBN 978-0-9677546-2-8, Jump up ^ Ueshiba, Kisshōmaru (2004), The Art of Aikido: Principles and Essential Techniques, Kodansha International, p, 70, ISBN 4-7700-2945-4, ^ Jump up to: a b c Pranin, Stanley (2006), "Aikido", Encyclopedia of Aikido, Archived from the original on 6 December 2006, Jump up ^ Pranin, Stanley (2006), "Aikijujutsu", Encyclopedia of Aikido, Archived from the original on 26 August 2014, Jump up ^ Pranin, Stanley (2007), "Aiki", Encyclopedia of Aikido, Archived from the original on 26 September 2007, Retrieved 21 August 2007, Jump up ^ Pranin, Stanley (2007), "O-Sensei", Encyclopedia of Aikido, Archived from the original on 26 August 2014, Jump up ^ Draeger, Donn F, (1974) Modern Bujutsu & Budo – The Martial Arts and Ways of Japan, New York: Weatherhill, Page 137, ISBN 0-8348-0351-8 ^ Jump up to: a b Stevens, John; Rinjiro, Shirata (1984), Aikido: The Way of Harmony, Boston, Massachusetts: Shambhala, pp, 3–17, ISBN 978-0-394-71426-4, Jump up ^ Pranin, Stanley (2006), "Ueshiba, Morihei", Encyclopedia of Aikido, Archived from the original on 30 March 2014, Jump up ^ Homma, Gaku (1997), The Structure of Aikido: Volume 1: Kenjutsu and Taijutsu Sword and Open-Hand Movement Relationships (Structure of Aikido, Vol 1), Blue Snake Books, ISBN 1-883319-55-2, Jump up ^ Pranin, Stanley, "Morihei Ueshiba and Onisaburo Deguchi", Encyclopedia of Aikido, Archived from the original on 17 October 2007, Jump up ^ Oomoto Foundation (2007), "The Teachings", Teachings and Scriptures, Netinformational Commission, Archived from the original on 13 August 2007, Retrieved 14 August 2007, ^ Jump up to: a b c d e Shishida, Fumiaki, "Aikido", Aikido Journal, Berkeley, CA: Shodokan Pub,, USA, ISBN 0-9647083-2-9, Archived from the original on 26 September 2007, ^ Jump up to: a b Pranin, Stanley (2006), "Mochizuki, Minoru", Encyclopedia of Aikido, Archived from the original on 26 August 2014, Jump up ^ Robert W, Smith, "Journal of Non-lethal Combat: Judo in the US Air Force, 1953", ejmas,com, Jump up ^ Pranin, Stanley (2006), "Yoshinkan Aikido", Encyclopedia of Aikido, Archived from the original on 26 September 2007, ^ Jump up to: a b c Shishido, Fumiaki; Nariyama, Tetsuro (2002), Aikido: Tradition and the Competitive Edge, Shodokan Publishing USA, ISBN 978-0-9647083-2-7, Jump up ^ Pranin, Stanley (2006), "Tohei, Koichi", Encyclopedia of Aikido, Archived from the original on 7 August 2007, ^ Jump up to: a b Shioda, Gōzō; Johnston, Christopher (2000), Aikido Shugyo: Harmony in Confrontation, Translated by Payet, Jacques, Shindokan Books, ISBN 978-0-9687791-2-5, Jump up ^ Reed, William (1997), "A Test Worth More than a Thousand Words", Archived from the original on 19 June 2007, Retrieved 11 August 2007, ^ Jump up to: a b Homma, Gaku (1990), Aikido for Life, Berkeley, California: North Atlantic Books, p, 20, ISBN 978-1-55643-078-7, Jump up ^ Pranin, Stanley (2006), "Jumbi Taiso", Encyclopedia of Aikido, Archived from the original on 16 October 2007, ^ Jump up to: a b c d Homma, Gaku (1990), Aikido for Life, Berkeley, California: North Atlantic Books, pp, 20–30, ISBN 978-1-55643-078-7, Jump up ^ Shifflett, C,M, (1999), Aikido Exercises for Teaching and Training, Berkeley, California: North Atlantic Books, ISBN 978-1-55643-314-6, Jump up ^ Pranin, Stanley (2008), "Ikkyo", Encyclopedia of Aikido, Archived from the original on 26 August 2014, Jump up ^ Pranin, Stanley (2008), "Yonkyo", Encyclopedia of Aikido, Archived from the original on 22 January 2008, Jump up ^ Pranin, Stanley (2008), "Kokyunage", Encyclopedia of Aikido, Archived from the original on 22 January 2008, Jump up ^ Pranin, Stanley (2008), "Juji Garami", Encyclopedia of Aikido, Archived from the original on 22 January 2008, Jump up ^ Pranin, Stanley (2008), "Kaitennage", Encyclopedia of Aikido, Archived from the original on 22 January 2008, Jump up ^ Amdur, Ellis, "Irimi", Aikido Journal, Archived from the original on 17 October 2007, ^ Jump up to: a b Shioda, Gōzō (1968), Dynamic Aikido, Kodansha International, pp, 52–55, ISBN 978-0-87011-301-7, Jump up ^ Scott, Nathan (2000), "Teachings of Ueshiba Morihei Sensei", Archived from the original on 31 December 2006, Retrieved 1 February 2007, Jump up ^ Dang, Phong (2006), Aikido Weapons Techniques: The Wooden Sword, Stick, and Knife of Aikido, Charles E Tuttle Company, ISBN 978-0-8048-3641-8, Jump up ^ Ratti, Oscar; Westbrook, Adele (1973), Secrets of the Samurai: The Martial Arts of Feudal Japan, Edison, New Jersey: Castle Books, pp, 23, 356–359, ISBN 978-0-7858-1073-5, ^ Jump up to: a b Ueshiba, Kisshomaru; Ueshiba, Moriteru (2002), Best Aikido: The Fundamentals (Illustrated Japanese Classics), Kodansha International, ISBN 978-4-7700-2762-7, Jump up ^ "Aikido Randori: Amazon,co,uk: Tetsuro Nariyama: 9780956620507: Books", amazon,co,uk, ^ Jump up to: a b Aikido and injuries: special report by Fumiaki Shishida Aiki News 1989;80 (April); partial English translation of article re-printed in Aikido Journal "Archived copy", Archived from the original on 12 October 2007, Retrieved 2007-09-01, ^ Jump up to: a b Pranin, Stanley (1983), "Aikido and Injuries", Encyclopedia of Aikido, Archived from the original on 22 January 2008, ^ Jump up to: a b Zetaruk, M; Violán, MA; Zurakowski, D; Micheli, LJ (2005), "Injuries in martial arts: a comparison of five styles", British journal of sports medicine, BMJ Publishing Group, 39 (1): 29–33, doi:10,1136/bjsm,2003,010322, PMC 1725005 , PMID 15618336, Retrieved 15 August 2008, Jump up ^ Hyams, Joe (1979), Zen in the Martial Arts, New York: Bantam Books, pp, 53–57, ISBN 0-553-27559-3, Jump up ^ Homma, Gaku (1990), Aikido for Life, Berkeley, California: North Atlantic Books, pp, 1–9, ISBN 978-1-55643-078-7, Jump up ^ Ueshiba, Morihei (1992), The Art of Peace, Translation by Stevens, John, Boston, Massachusetts: Shambhala Publications, Inc, ISBN 978-0-87773-851-0, Jump up ^ Heckler, Richard (1985), Aikido and the New Warrior, Berkeley, California: North Atlantic Books, pp, 51–57, ISBN 978-0-938190-51-6, ^ Jump up to: a b Pranin, Stanley (Fall 1990), "Aikido Practice Today", Aiki News, Aiki News, 86, Archived from the original on 21 November 2007, Retrieved 2 November 2007, Jump up ^ Ledyard, George S, (June 2002), "Non-Traditional Attacks", www,aikiweb,com, Archived from the original on 25 July 2008, Retrieved 29 July 2008, Jump up ^ Wagstaffe, Tony (30 March 2007), "In response to the articles by Stanley Pranin – Martial arts in a state of decline? An end to the collusion?", Aikido Journal, Retrieved 29 July 2008, Jump up ^ Pranin, Stanley (1994), "Challenging the Status Quo", Aiki News, Aiki News, 98, Archived from the original on 21 November 2007, Retrieved 2 November 2007, ^ Jump up to: a b Shibata, Minoru J, (2007), "A Dilemma Deferred: An Identity Denied and Dismissed", Aikido Journal, Archived from the original on 21 November 2007, Retrieved 11 March 2016, External links[edit] Find more about Aikido at Wikipedia's sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Learning resources from Wikiversity Data from Wikidata AikiWeb Aikido Information site on aikido, with essays, forums, gallery, reviews, columns, wiki and other information, [hide] vte Aikido Aikido founded by Morihei Ueshiba Aikido stylesPre-war Daitō-ryū Aiki-jūjutsuAiki Budō Post-war (first 40 years) AikikaiIwama RyuKi SocietyShodokanYoseikan AikidoYoshinkan Modern period (1980–present) Aikido YuishinkaiFugakukaiKobayashi aikidoKokikaiKorindo AikidoKeijutsukai Aikido Aikido concepts AikiIrimiKuzushiMaaiTai sabakiTenkanZanshin Equipment AikidogiBokkenHakamaJōObiTantō Practice UkeToriAikido techniques Historic dojo Aikikai Hombu DojoIwama dojo (Aiki Jinja) Other KamizaEtiquette in JapanSenshuseiUchi-deshi List of aikidoka [show] Articles and topics related to aikido Authority control GND: 4000844-7NDL: 00560104 Japan portal Martial arts portal Categories: AikidoJapanese martial artsDō SOME GENERAL INFO ABOUT MARTIAL ARTSMartial artsFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaMartial arts are codified systems and traditions of combat practices, which are practiced for a number of reasons: as self-defense, military and law enforcement applications, mental and spiritual development; as well as entertainment and the preservation of a nation's intangible cultural heritage, Although the term martial art has become associated with the fighting arts of eastern Asia, it originally referred to the combat systems of Europe as early as the 1550s, The term is derived from Latin, and means "arts of Mars", the Roman god of war,[1] Some authors have argued that fighting arts or fighting systems would be more appropriate on the basis that many martial arts were never "martial" in the sense of being used or created by professional warriors,[2] The martial art of boxing was practiced in the ancient Thera,Contents [hide] 1Variation and scope1,1By technical focus1,2By application or intent2History2,1Historical martial arts2,2Folk styles2,3Modern history2,4Reviving of lost martial arts3Testing and competition3,1Light- and medium-contact3,2Full-contact3,3Martial sport4Health and fitness benefits5Self-defense, military and law enforcement applications6Martial arts industry6,1Equipment6,2Martial arts fraud7See also8ReferencesVariation and scope[edit]Martial arts may be categorized along a variety of criteria, including: Traditional or historical arts vs, contemporary styles of folk wrestling and modern hybrid martial arts,Techniques taught: Armed vs, unarmed, and within these groups by type of weapon (swordsmanship, stick fighting etc,) and by type of combat (grappling vs, striking; stand-up fighting vs, ground fighting)By application or intent: self-defense, combat sport, choreography or demonstration of forms, physical fitness, meditation, etc,Within Chinese tradition: "external" vs, "internal" stylesBy technical focus[edit]UnarmedUnarmed martial arts can be broadly grouped into focusing on strikes, those focusing on grappling and those that cover both fields, often described as hybrid martial arts, Strikes Punching: Boxing, Wing Chun, KarateKicking: Taekwondo, Capoeira, SavateOthers using strikes: Muay Thai, SanshouGrappling Throwing: Hapkido, Judo, Sumo, Wrestling, AikidoJoint lock/Chokeholds/Submission holds: Jujutsu, Brazilian jiu-jitsu, SamboPinning Techniques: Judo, Wrestling, AikidoWeapon-basedThose traditional martial arts which train armed combat often encompass a wide spectrum of melee weapons, including bladed weapons and polearms, Such traditions include eskrima, silat, kalaripayat, kobudo, and historical European martial arts, especially those of the German Renaissance, Many Chinese martial arts also feature weapons as part of their curriculum, Sometimes, training with one specific weapon will be considered a style of martial arts in its own right, which is especially the case in Japanese martial arts with disciplines such as kenjutsu and kendo (sword), bojutsu (staff), and kyudo (archery), Similarly, modern Western martial arts and sports include modern fencing, stick-fighting systems like canne de combat or singlestick, and modern competitive archery, By application or intent[edit]Combat-orientedMain articles: Combat sport and Self-defenseHealth-orientedMany martial arts, especially those from Asia, also teach side disciplines which pertain to medicinal practices, This is particularly prevalent in traditional Asian martial arts which may teach bone-setting, herbalism, and other aspects of traditional medicine,[3] Spirituality-orientedMartial arts can also be linked with religion and spirituality, Numerous systems are reputed to have been founded, disseminated, or practiced by monks or nuns, Throughout Asia, meditation may be incorporated as part of training, In those countries influenced by Hindu-Buddhist philosophy, the art itself may be used as an aid to attaining enlightenment, Japanese styles, when concerning non-physical qualities of the combat, are often strongly influenced by Mahayana Buddhist philosophy, Concepts like "empty mind" and "beginner's mind" are recurrent, Aikido, for instance, can have a strong philosophical belief of the flow of energy and peace fostering, as idealised by its founder Morihei Ueshiba, Traditional Korean martial arts place emphasis on the development of the practitioner's spiritual and philosophical development, A common theme in most Korean styles, such as taekkyeon and taekwondo, is the value of "inner peace" in a practitioner, which is stressed to be only achieved through individual meditation and training, The Koreans believe that the use of physical force is only justified through defense, Systema draws upon breathing and relaxation techniques, as well as elements of Russian Orthodox thought, to foster self-conscience and calmness, and to benefit the practitioner in different levels: the physical, the psychological and the spiritual,[4] Some martial arts in various cultures can be performed in dance-like settings for various reasons, such as for evoking ferocity in preparation for battle or showing off skill in a more stylized manner, Many such martial arts incorporate music, especially strong percussive rhythms, (See also war dance,) History[edit]Main article: History of martial artsFurther information: Martial arts timelineHistorical martial arts[edit]Main articles: History of Asian martial arts and Historical European martial artsFurther information: History of boxing and History of fencing Detail of the wrestling fresco in tomb 15 at Beni Hasan,The oldest works of art depicting scenes of battle are cave paintings from Spain dated between 10,000 and 6,000 BCE that show organized groups fighting with bows and arrows,[5][6] Chinese martial arts originated during the Xia Dynasty more than 4000 years ago, It is said the Yellow Emperor Huangdi (legendary date of ascension 2698 BC) introduced the earliest fighting systems to China, The Yellow Emperor is described as a famous general who, before becoming China's leader, wrote lengthy treatises on medicine, astrology and the martial arts, One of his main opponents was Chi You who was credited as the creator of jiao di, a forerunner to the modern art of Chinese wrestling, The foundation of modern Asian martial arts is likely a blend of early Chinese and Indian martial arts, During the Warring States period of Chinese history (480-221 BC) extensive development in martial philosophy and strategy emerged, as described by Sun Tzu in The Art of War (c, 350 BC),[7] Legendary accounts link the origin of Shaolinquan to the spread of Buddhism from India during the early 5th century AD, with the figure of Bodhidharma, to China,[8] Written evidence of martial arts in Southern India dates back to the Sangam literature of about the 2nd century BC to the 2nd century AD,[9] The combat techniques of the Sangam period were the earliest precursors to Kalaripayattu,[10] Pankratiasts fighting under the eyes of a judge, Side B of a Panathenaic prize amphora, c, 500 BC,In Europe, the earliest sources of martial arts traditions date to Ancient Greece, Boxing (pygme, pyx), wrestling (pale) and pankration were represented in the Ancient Olympic Games, The Romans produced gladiatorial combat as a public spectacle, A number of historical combat manuals have survived from the European Middle Ages, This includes such styles as sword and shield, two-handed swordfighting and other types of melee weapons besides unarmed combat, Amongst these are transcriptions of Johannes Liechtenauer's mnemonic poem on the longsword dating back to the late fourteenth century, Likewise, Asian martial arts become well-documented during the medieval period, Japanese martial arts beginning with the establishment of the samurai nobility in the 12th century, Chinese martial arts with Ming era treatises such as Ji Xiao Xin Shu, Indian martial arts in medieval texts such as the Agni Purana and the Malla Purana, and Korean martial arts from the Joseon era and texts such as Muyejebo (1598), European swordsmanship always had a sportive component, but the duel was always a possibility until World War I, Modern sport fencing began developing during the 19th century as the French and Italian military academies began codifying instruction, The Olympic games led to standard international rules, with the Féderation Internationale d'Escrime founded in 1913, Modern boxing originates with Jack Broughton's rules in the 18th century, and reaches its present form with the Marquess of Queensberry Rules of 1867, Folk styles[edit]Main article: Folk wrestlingCertain traditional combat sports and fighting styles exist all over the world, rooted in local culture and folklore, The most common of these are styles of folk wrestling, some of which have been practiced since antiquity, and are found in the most remote areas, Other examples include forms of stick fighting and boxing, While these arts are based on historical traditions of folklore, they are not "historical" in the sense that they reconstruct or preserve a historical system from a specific era, They are rather contemporary regional sports that coexist with the modern forms of martial arts sports as they have developed since the 19th century, often including cross-fertilization between sports and folk styles; thus, the traditional Thai art of muay boran developed into the modern national sport of muay Thai, which in turn came to be practiced worldwide and contributed significantly to modern hybrid styles like kickboxing and mixed martial arts, Singlestick, an English martial art can be seen often utilised in morris dancing, Many European dances share elements of martial arts with examples including Ukrainian Hopak, Polish Zbójnicki (use of ciupaga), the Czech dance odzemek, and the Norwegian Halling, Modern history[edit]Further information: Modern history of East Asian martial artsLate 19th to early 20th centuryThe mid to late 19th century marks the beginning of the history of martial arts as modern sports developed out of earlier traditional fighting systems, In Europe, this concerns the developments of boxing and fencing as sports, In Japan, the same period marks the formation of the modern forms of judo, jujutsu, karate, and kendo (among others) based on revivals of old schools of Edo period martial arts which had been suppressed during the Meiji Restoration,[citation needed] Modern muay Thai rules date to the 1920s, In China, the modern history of martial arts begins in the Nanjing decade (1930s) following the foundation of the Central Guoshu Institute in 1928 under the Kuomintang government, Western interest in Asian martial arts arises towards the end of the 19th century, due to the increase in trade between the United States with China and Japan,[citation needed] Relatively few Westerners actually practiced the arts, considering it to be mere performance, Edward William Barton-Wright, a railway engineer who had studied jujutsu while working in Japan between 1894 and 1897, was the first man known to have taught Asian martial arts in Europe, He also founded an eclectic style named Bartitsu which combined jujutsu, judo, wrestling, boxing, savate and stick fighting, Fencing and Greco-Roman wrestling was included in the 1896 Summer Olympics, FILA Wrestling World Championships and Boxing at the Summer Olympics were introduced in 1904, The tradition of awarding championship belts in wrestling and boxing can be traced to the Lonsdale Belt, introduced in 1909, 20th century (1914 to 1989) Bruce Lee and his teacher Yip Man, Jackie Chan, one of the best known Hollywood actors and martial artists,The International Boxing Association was established in 1920, World Fencing Championships have been held since 1921, As Western influence grew in Asia a greater number of military personnel spent time in China, Japan and South Korea during World War II and the Korean War and were exposed to local fighting styles, Jujutsu, judo and karate first became popular among the mainstream from the 1950s-60s, Due in part to Asian and Hollywood martial arts movies, most modern American martial arts are either Asian-derived or Asian influenced,[11] The term kickboxing (キックボクシング) was created by the Japanese boxing promoter Osamu Noguchi for a variant of muay Thai and karate that he created in the 1950s, American kickboxing was developed in the 1970s, as a combination of boxing and karate, Taekwondo was developed in the context of the Korean War in the 1950s, The later 1960s and 1970s witnessed an increased media interest in Chinese martial arts, influenced by martial artist Bruce Lee, Bruce Lee is credited as one of the first instructors to openly teach Chinese martial arts to Westerners,[12] World Judo Championships have been held since 1956, Judo at the Summer Olympics was introduced in 1964, Karate World Championships were introduced in 1970, Following the "kung fu wave" in Hong Kong action cinema in the 1970s, a number of mainstream films produced during the 1980s contributed significantly to the perception of martial arts in western popular culture, These include The Karate Kid (1984) and Bloodsport (1988), This era produced some Hollywood action st*rs with martial arts background, such as Jean-Claude Van Damme and Chuck Norris, Also during the 20th century, a number of martial arts were adapted for self-defense purposes for military hand-to-hand combat, World War II combatives, KAPAP (1930s) and Krav Maga (1950s) in Israel, Systema in Soviet-era Russia, and Sanshou in the People's Republic of China are examples of such systems, The US military de-emphasized hand-to-hand combat training during the Cold War period, but revived it with the introduction of LINE in 1989, 1990 to presentDuring the 1990s Brazilian jiu-jitsu became popular and proved to be effective in mixed martial arts competitions such as the UFC and PRIDE,[13] In 1993 the first Pancrase event was held,[14] The K-1 rules of kickboxing were introduced based on 1980s Seidokaikan karate, Jackie Chan and Jet Li are prominent movie figures who have been responsible for promoting Chinese martial arts in recent years, With the continual discovery of more medieval and Renaissance fighting manuals, the practice of Historical European Martial Arts and other Western Martial Arts are growing in popularity across the United States and Europe, November 29, 2011, UNESCO inscribed taekkyeon onto its Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity List,[15] Reviving of lost martial arts[edit]Many martial arts which originated in Southern India were banned by the government of the British Raj,[16] few of them which barely survived are Kalaripayattu and Silambam, These and other martial arts survived by telling the British government it was a form of dance, Varma kalai, a martial arts concentrating on vital points, was almost dead but is gradually being revived,[17] Testing and competition[edit]Testing or evaluation is important to martial artists of many disciplines who wish to determine their progression or own level of skill in specific contexts, Students often undergo periodic testing and grading by their own teacher in order to advance to a higher level of recognized achievement, such as a different belt color or title, The type of testing used varies from system to system but may include forms or sparring, Steven Ho executing a Jump Spin Hook KickVarious forms and sparring are commonly used in martial art exhibitions and tournaments, Some competitions pit practitioners of different disciplines against each other using a common set of rules, these are referred to as mixed martial arts competitions, Rules for sparring vary between art and organization but can generally be divided into light-contact, medium-contact, and full-contact variants, reflecting the amount of force that should be used on an opponent, Light- and medium-contact[edit]These types of sparring restrict the amount of force that may be used to hit an opponent, in the case of light sparring this is usually to 'touch' contact, e,g, a punch should be 'pulled' as soon as or before contact is made, In medium-contact (sometimes referred to as semi-contact) the punch would not be 'pulled' but not hit with full force, As the amount of force used is restricted, the aim of these types of sparring is not to knock out an opponent; a point system is used in competitions, A referee acts to monitor for fouls and to control the match, while judges mark down scores, as in boxing, Particular targets may be prohibited, certain techniques may be forbidden (such as headbutting or groin hits), and fighters may be required to wear protective equipment on their head, hands, chest, groin, shins or feet, Some grappling arts, such as aikido, use a similar method of compliant training that is equivalent to light or medium contact, In some styles (such as fencing and some styles of taekwondo sparring), competitors score points based on the landing of a single technique or strike as judged by the referee, whereupon the referee will briefly stop the match, award a point, then rest*rt the match, Alternatively, sparring may continue with the point noted by the judges, Some critics of point sparring feel that this method of training teaches habits that result in lower combat effectiveness, Lighter-contact sparring may be used exclusively, for children or in other situations when heavy contact would be inappropriate (such as beginners), medium-contact sparring is often used as training for full contact Full-contact[edit]Further information: Full-contactFull-contact sparring or competition, where strikes or techniques are not pulled but used with full force as the name implies, has a number of tactical differences from light and medium-contact sparring, It is considered by some to be requisite in learning realistic unarmed combat,[18] In full-contact sparring, the aim of a competitive match is to knock out the opponent or to force the opponent to submit, Where scoring takes place it may be a subsidiary measure, only used if no clear winner has been established by other means; in some competitions, such as the UFC 1, there was no scoring, though most now use some form of judging as a backup,[19] Due to these factors, full-contact matches tend to be more aggressive in character, but rule sets may still mandate the use of protective equipment, or limit the techniques allowed, Nearly all mixed martial arts organizations such as UFC, Pancrase, Shooto use a form of full-contact rules, as do professional boxing organizations and K-1, Kyokushin karate requires advanced practitioners to engage in bare-knuckled, full-contact sparring allowing kicks, knees and punching although punching to the head is disallowed while wearing only a karate gi and groin protector, Brazilian jiu-jitsu and judo matches do not allow striking, but are full-contact in the sense that full force is applied in the permitted grappling and submission techniques, Competitions held by the World Taekwondo Federation requires the use of Headgear and padded vest, but are full contact in the sense that full force is applied to strikes to the head and body, and win by knockout is possible, Martial sport[edit]Main article: Combat sport Several martial arts, such as judo, are Olympic sports,Martial arts have crossed over into sports when forms of sparring become competitive, becoming a sport in its own right that is dissociated from the original combative origin, such as with western fencing, The Summer Olympic Games includes judo, taekwondo, western archery, boxing, javelin, wrestling and fencing as events, while Chinese wushu recently failed in its bid to be included, but is still actively performed in tournaments across the world, Practitioners in some arts such as kickboxing and Brazilian jiu-jitsu often train for sport matches, whereas those in other arts such as aikido generally spurn such competitions, Some schools believe that competition breeds better and more efficient practitioners, and gives a sense of good sportsmanship, Others believe that the rules under which competition takes place have diminished the combat effectiveness of martial arts or encourage a kind of practice which focuses on winning trophies rather than a focus such as cultivating a particular moral character, The question of "which is the best martial art" has led to inter style competitions fought with very few rules allowing a variety of fighting styles to enter with few limitations, This was the origin of the first Ultimate Fighting Championship tournament (later renamed UFC 1: The Beginning) in the U,S, inspired by the Brazilian Vale tudo tradition and along with other minimal rule competitions, most notably those from Japan such as Shooto and Pancrase, have evolved into the combat sport of Mixed Martial Arts (MMA), Some martial artists compete in non-sparring competitions such as breaking or choreographed routines of techniques such as poomse, kata and aka, or modern variations of the martial arts which include dance-influenced competitions such as tricking, Martial traditions have been influenced by governments to become more sport-like for political purposes; the central impetus for the attempt by the People's Republic of China in transforming Chinese martial arts into the committee-regulated sport of wushu was suppressing what they saw as the potentially subversive aspects of martial training, especially under the traditional system of family lineages,[20] Health and fitness benefits[edit]Martial arts training aims to result in several benefits to trainees, such as their physical, mental, emotional and spiritual health,[21] Through systematic practice in the martial arts a person's physical fitness may be boosted (strength, stamina, flexibility, movement coordination, etc,) as the whole body is exercised and the entire muscular system is activated,[citation needed] Beyond contributing to physical fitness, martial arts training also has benefits for mental health, contributing to self-esteem, self-control, emotional and spiritual well-being, For this reason, a number of martial arts schools have focused purely on therapeutic aspects, de-emphasizing the historical aspect of self-defense or combat completely,[citation needed] According to Bruce Lee, martial arts also have the nature of an art, since there is emotional communication and complete emotional expression,[citation needed] Self-defense, military and law enforcement applications[edit]Main articles: Hand-to-hand combat and Self-defense U,S, Army Combatives instructor Matt Larsen demonstrates a chokehold,Some traditional martial concepts have seen new use within modern military training, Perhaps the most recent example of this is point shooting which relies on muscle memory to more effectively utilize a firearm in a variety of awkward situations, much the way an iaidoka would master movements with their sword, During the World War II era William E, Fairbairn and Eric A, Sykes were recruited by the Special Operations Executive (SOE) to teach their martial art of defendu (itself drawing on Western boxing and jujutsu) and pistol shooting to UK, US, and Canadian special forces, The book Kill or Get Killed, written by Colonel Rex Applegate, was based on the defendu taught by Sykes and Fairbairn, Both Fairbairn's Get Tough and Appelgate's Kill or Get Killed became classic works on hand-to-hand combat, Traditional hand-to-hand, knife, and spear techniques continue to see use in the composite systems developed for today's wars, Examples of this include European Unifight, the US Army's Combatives system developed by Matt Larsen, the Israeli army's KAPAP and Krav Maga, and the US Marine Corps's Marine Corps Martial Arts Program (MCMAP), Unarmed dagger defenses identical to those found in the manual of Fiore dei Liberi and the Codex Wallerstein were integrated into the U,S, Army's training manuals in 1942[22] and continue to influence today's systems along with other traditional systems such as eskrima and silat, The rifle-mounted bayonet, which has its origin in the spear, has seen use by the United States Army, the United States Marine Corps, and the British Army as recently as the Iraq War,[23] Many martial arts are also seen and used in Law Enforcement hand to hand training, For example, the Tokyo Riot Police's use of aikido,[24] Martial arts industry[edit]Martial arts since the 1970s has become a significant industry, a subset of the wider sport industry (including cinema and sports television), Hundreds of millions of people worldwide practice some form of martial art, Web Japan (sponsored by the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs) claims there are 50 million karate practitioners worldwide,[25] The South Korean government in 2009 published an estimate that taekwondo is practiced by 70 million people in 190 countries,[26] The wholesale value of martial arts related sporting equipment shipped in the United States was estimated at 314 million USD in 2007; participation in the same year was estimated at 6,9 million (ages 6 or older, 2% of US population),[27] R, A, Court, CEO of Martial Arts Channel, stated the total revenue of the US martial arts industry at USD 40 billion and the number of US practitioners at 30 million in 2003,[28] Equipment[edit]Martial arts equipment can include that used for conditioning, protection and weapons, Specialized conditioning equipment can include breaking boards, dummy partners such as the wooden dummy, and targets such as punching bags and the makiwara, Protective equipment for sparring and competition includes boxing gloves and headgear, Martial arts fraud[edit]Asian martial arts experienced a surge of popularity in the west during the 1970s, and the rising demand resulted in numerous low quality or fraudulent schools, Fueled by fictional depictions in martial arts movies, this led to the ninja craze of the 1980s in the United States,[29] There were also numerous fraudulent ads for martial arts training programs, inserted into comic books circa the 1960s and 1970s, which were read primarily by adolescent boys,[30] When the martial arts came to the United States in the seventies, lower ranks (kyu) began to be given colorful belts to show progress, This proved to be commercially viable and colored-belt systems were adopted in many martial arts degree mills (also known as McDojos and Belt Factories) as a means to generate additional cash, This was covered in Penn & Teller: Bullshit! episode "Martial Arts" (June 2010), See also[edit]Martial arts portalWikimedia Commons has media related to Martial arts,For a time line of martial arts historical milestones, see Martial arts timelineFor a detailed history of martial arts see: History of martial artsFor a detailed list of martial arts, see List of martial artsFor a detailed list of fictional martial arts, see List of fictional martial artsReferences[edit]Jump up ^ Clements, John (January 2006), "A Short Introduction to Historical European Martial Arts" (PDF), Meibukan Magazine (Special Edition No, 1): 2–4, Archived from the original (PDF) on March 18, 2012,Jump up ^ Donn F, Draeger and P'ng Chye Khim (1979), Shaolin Lohan Kung-fu, Tuttle Publishing,Jump up ^ "Internal Kung Fu", Chiflow,com, Retrieved 2010-11-07,Jump up ^ "Philosophy aspects of Systema", Russian Martial Art - Systema Headquarters, Retrieved 2011-09-29,Jump up ^ Hamblin, William J, (2006), Warfare in the ancient Near East to 1600 BC : holy warriors at the dawn of history (Repr, ed,), New York: Routledge, p, 15, ISBN 978-0415255899,Jump up ^ Nash, George, "Assessing rank and warfare strategy in prehistoric hunter-gatherer society: a study of representational warrior figures in rock-art from the Spanish Levant" in: M, Parker Pearson & I,J,N, Thorpe (eds,), Warfare, violence and slavery in prehistory: proceedings of a Prehistoric Society conference at Sheffield University, 2005, Archaeopress, ISBN 1-84171-816-5, 9781841718163, Fully online, Bristol UniversityJump up ^ "Sun Tzu Biography and Introduction: Sun Tzu The Art of War and Strategy Site by", Sonshi, Com, Retrieved 2010-11-07,Jump up ^ Reid, Howard and Croucher, Michael, The Way of the Warrior-The Paradox of the Martial Arts" New York, Overlook Press: 1983,Jump up ^ "Kalari Payatte, the martial art of Kerala, India, Kalari Payattu", 2009-08-29, Archived from the original on August 29, 2009, Retrieved 2016-02-29,Jump up ^ "Actualizing Power and Crafting a Self in Kalarippayattu", spa,exeter,ac,uk, Retrieved 2016-02-29,Jump up ^ Berreby, David (1988-08-28), "The Martial Arts as Moneymakers", The New York Times, Retrieved 2010-12-04,Jump up ^ "Jeet Kune Do", absolutedefense,net, Retrieved 2014-05-27,Jump up ^ "fighting art used in the UFC", Ufc,com, Retrieved 2010-11-07,Jump up ^ "The origins, history and rules from the early days of Pancrase circa 1993 - Bloody Elbow", bloodyelbow,com, Retrieved 2014-05-27,Jump up ^ "UNESCO Culture Sector - Intangible Heritage - 2003 Convention", unesco,org,Jump up ^ "Reviving the Lost Martial Arts of India - The Armchair Lounge", The Armchair Lounge, Retrieved 2016-03-01,Jump up ^ Manoharan, Suresh K, "History of Varmakalai", www,varmam,org, Retrieved 2016-03-01,Jump up ^ "Aliveness 101", Straight Blast gym, Retrieved 2008-11-03, – An essay on contact levels in trainingJump up ^ Dave Meltzer, (November 12, 2007), "First UFC forever altered combat sports", Yahoo! Sports, Retrieved 2008-11-03,Jump up ^ Fu, Zhongwen (2006) [1996], Mastering Yang Style Taijiquan, Berkeley, California: Blue Snake Books,Jump up ^ "Effects of martial arts on health status: A systematic review", Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine, 3 (4): 205–219, doi:10,1111/j,1756-5391,2010,01107,x,Jump up ^ Vail, Jason (2006), Medieval and Renaissance Dagger Combat, Paladin Press, pp, 91–95,Jump up ^ Sean Rayment (2004-06-13), "British battalion 'attacked every day for six weeks'", The Daily Telegraph, London: Telegraph Media Group Limited, Retrieved 2008-12-11,Jump up ^ Twigger, R, (1997): Angry White Pyjamas, London: Phoenix, (ISBN 978-0-7538-0858-0)Jump up ^ "Martial Arts : Fact Sheet" (PDF), Web-japan,org, Retrieved 2015-08-13,Jump up ^ Kim, H,-S, (2009): Taekwondo: A new strategy for Brand Korea (21 December 2009), Retrieved on 8 January 2010,Jump up ^ , Jack W, Plunkett, Plunkett's Sports Industry Almanac 2009, ISBN 978-1-59392-140-8,Jump up ^ Black Belt Magazine September 2003, p, 20,Jump up ^ see e,g, Black Belt Magazine, June 1999, p, 78,Jump up ^ Tom Heintjes, "The Deadliest Ads Alive! | Hogan's Alley", Cartoonician,com, Retrieved 2015-08-13,[hide] v t eMartial artsList of styles History Timeline Hard and softRegional originChina Europe India Indonesia Japan Korea PhilippinesUnarmed techniquesChokehold Clinch Footwork Elbow strike Headbutt Hold Kick Knee strike Joint lock Punch Sweep Takedown ThrowWeaponsArchery Knife fighting Melee weapons Shooting Stick-fighting SwordsmanshipTrainingKata Practice weapon Punching bag Pushing hands Randori SparringGrapplingBrazilian jiu-jitsu Judo Jujutsu Sambo Sumo WrestlingStrikingBoxing Capoeira Karate Kickboxing Muay Thai Lethwei Sanshou Savate Taekwondo VovinamInternalAikido Aikijutsu Baguazhang Tai chi Xing Yi QuanFull contact / combat sportsProfessional boxing Professional kickboxing Knockdown karate Mixed martial arts Submission wrestlingSelf-defense / combativesArnis Bartitsu Hapkido Kajukenbo Krav Maga MCMAP Pencak Silat Systema Wing Chun Legal aspectsEclectic / hybridsAmerican Kenpo Chun Kuk Do Jeet Kune Do Kuk Sool Shooto Shorinji Kempo UnifightEntertainmentFighting game Martial arts film (Chanbara) Professional wrestling WuxiaPortal The Martial Arts PortalAuthority controlNDL: 00564740Categories: Martial artsCombat sportsIndividual sportsMental trainingPerforming artsSelf-defense ------------------------------ terms and phrases abdomen attacker's backward basic punch Bear Hug begin black belt Blocking Techniques body Bring your left bring your right chest CHOJUN MIYAGI circular motion Dachi defender dojo Endless Path exercises face feet floor front foot front kick goju-ryu karate hips Japanese ju-jitsu KARATE BASICS karate classes karate master karate schools karate students Karate teachers karate training kata Keep your back kiai Kick-box kung fu lean left arm left fist left foot left hand left knee left leg left sanchin stance left zenkutsu stance Lift low block martial arts meditation middle block midsection Miyagi movements muscles Naha Nardi neck Okinawan opponent opponent's palm person proper form punches and kicks rear foot retracted right arm right fist right foot right hand right knee score shoulders side sit-ups slowly snap your right solar plexus sparring techniques stretch style of karate tae kwon tenth degree toes youngster Zenkutsu-dachi ------------------- SOME GENERAL INFO ABOUT KARATEKarateFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaThis article is about the martial art, For other uses, see Karate (disambiguation),Karate(空手)Karatedo,svgHanashiro ChomoHanashiro ChomoAlso known asKarate Do 空手道FocusStrikingHardnessFull-contact, semi-contact, light-contactCountry of originRyukyu KingdomCreatorSakukawa Kanga; Matsumura Sōkon; Itosu Ankō; Arakaki Seishō; Higaonna KanryōParenthoodIndigenous martial arts of Ryukyu Islands, Chinese martial arts[1][2]Olympic sportYes (2020 Summer Olympics)Karate (空手) (English: /kəˈrɑːtiː/; Japanese pronunciation: [kaɾate] (About this sound listen); Okinawan pronunciation: Ryukyuan pronunciation: [kaɽati]) is a martial art developed in the Ryukyu Kingdom, It developed from the indigenous Ryukyuan martial arts (called te (手), "hand"; tii in Okinawan) under the influence of Chinese martial arts, particularly Fujian White Crane,[1][2] Karate is now predominantly a striking art using punching, kicking, knee strikes, elbow strikes and open-hand techniques such as knife-hands, spear-hands, and palm-heel strikes, Historically, and in some modern styles, grappling, throws, joint locks, restraints, and vital-point strikes are also taught,[3] A karate practitioner is called a karateka (空手家), The Ryukyu Kingdom was annexed by Japan in 1879, Karate was brought to Japan in the early 20th century during a time of migration as Ryukyuans, especially from Okinawa, looked for work in Japan,[4] It was systematically taught in Japan after the Taishō era,[5] In 1922 the Japanese Ministry of Education invited Gichin Funakoshi to Tokyo to give a karate demonstration, In 1924 Keio University established the first university karate club in mainland Japan and by 1932, major Japanese universities had karate clubs,[6] In this era of escalating Japanese militarism,[7] the name was changed from 唐手 ("Chinese hand" or "Tang hand")[8] to 空手 ("empty hand") – both of which are pronounced karate in Japanese – to indicate that the Japanese wished to develop the combat form in Japanese style,[9] After World War II, Okinawa became an important United States military site and karate became popular among servicemen stationed there,[10] The martial arts movies of the 1960s and 1970s served to greatly increase the popularity of martial arts around the world, and in English the word karate began to be used in a generic way to refer to all striking-based Oriental martial arts,[11] Karate schools began appearing across the world, catering to those with casual interest as well as those seeking a deeper study of the art, Shigeru Egami, Chief Instructor of Shotokan Dojo, opined that "the majority of followers of karate in overseas countries pursue karate only for its fighting techniques ,,, Movies and television ,,, depict karate as a mysterious way of fighting capable of causing death or injury with a single blow ,,, the mass media present a pseudo art far from the real thing,"[12] Shōshin Nagamine said, "Karate may be considered as the conflict within oneself or as a life-long marathon which can be won only through self-discipline, hard training and one's own creative efforts,"[13] On 28 September 2015, karate was featured on a shortlist along with baseball, softball, skateboarding, surfing, and sport climbing to be considered for inclusion in the 2020 Summer Olympics, On 1 June 2016, the International Olympic Committee's executive board announced they were supporting the inclusion of all five sports (counting baseball and softball as only one sport) for inclusion in the 2020 Games, Web Japan (sponsored by the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs) claims there are 50 million karate practitioners worldwide,[14] while the World Karate Federation claims there are 100 million practitioners around the world,[15] Contents [hide] 1History1,1Okinawa1,2Japan2Practice2,1Kihon2,2Kata2,3Kumite2,4Dojo Kun2,5Conditioning2,6Sport2,7Rank3Philosophy4Etymology5Karate and its influence outside Japan5,1Canada5,2Korea5,3Soviet Union5,4United States5,5Europe5,6United Kingdom5,7Italy5,8France5,9Africa6Film and popular culture7See also8References9External linksHistory[edit]Okinawa[edit]See also: Okinawan martial artsKarate began as a common fighting system known as te (Okinawan: ti) among the Pechin class of the Ryukyuans, After trade relationships were established with the Ming dynasty of China in 1372 by King Satto of Chūzan, some forms of Chinese martial arts were introduced to the Ryukyu Islands by the visitors from China, particularly Fujian Province, A large group of Chinese families moved to Okinawa around 1392 for the purpose of cultural exchange, where they established the community of Kumemura and shared their knowledge of a wide variety of Chinese arts and sciences, including the Chinese martial arts, The political centralization of Okinawa by King Shō Hashi in 1429 and the policy of banning weapons by King Shō Shin in 1477, later enforced in Okinawa after the invasion by the Shimazu clan in 1609, are also factors that furthered the development of unarmed combat techniques in Okinawa,[2] There were few formal styles of te, but rather many practitioners with their own methods, One surviving example is the Motobu-ryū school passed down from the Motobu family by Seikichi Uehara,[16] Early styles of karate are often generalized as Shuri-te, Naha-te, and Tomari-te, named after the three cities from which they emerged,[17] Each area and its teachers had particular kata, techniques, and principles that distinguished their local version of te from the others, Members of the Okinawan upper classes were sent to China regularly to study various political and practical disciplines, The incorporation of empty-handed Chinese Kung Fu into Okinawan martial arts occurred partly because of these exchanges and partly because of growing legal restrictions on the use of weaponry, Traditional karate kata bear a strong resemblance to the forms found in Fujian martial arts such as Fujian White Crane, Tai Zu Quan or Grand Ancestors Fist, Five Ancestors, and Gangrou-quan (Hard Soft Fist; pronounced "Gōjūken" in Japanese),[18] Many Okinawan weapons such as the sai, tonfa, and nunchaku may have originated in and around Southeast Asia, Sakukawa Kanga (1782–1838) had studied pugilism and staff (bo) fighting in China (according to one legend, under the guidance of Kosokun, originator of kusanku kata), In 1806 he st*rted teaching a fighting art in the city of Shuri that he called "Tudi Sakukawa," which meant "Sakukawa of China Hand," This was the first known recorded reference to the art of "Tudi," written as 唐手, Around the 1820s Sakukawa's most significant student Matsumura Sōkon (1809–1899) taught a synthesis of te (Shuri-te and Tomari-te) and Shaolin (Chinese 少林) styles,[citation needed] Matsumura's style would later become the Shōrin-ryū style, Ankō Itosu, grandfather of modern karateMatsumura taught his art to Itosu Ankō (1831–1915) among others, Itosu adapted two forms he had learned from Matsumura, These are kusanku and chiang nan,[19] He created the ping'an forms ("heian" or "pinan" in Japanese) which are simplified kata for beginning students, In 1901 Itosu helped to get karate introduced into Okinawa's public schools, These forms were taught to children at the elementary school level, Itosu's influence in karate is broad, The forms he created are common across nearly all styles of karate, His students became some of the most well-known karate masters, including Gichin Funakoshi, Kenwa Mabuni, and Motobu Chōki, Itosu is sometimes referred to as "the Grandfather of Modern Karate,"[20] In 1881 Higaonna Kanryō returned from China after years of instruction with Ryu Ryu Ko and founded what would become Naha-te, One of his students was the founder of Gojū-ryū, Chōjun Miyagi, Chōjun Miyagi taught such well-known karateka as Seko Higa (who also trained with Higaonna), Meitoku Yagi, Miyazato Ei'ichi, and Seikichi Toguchi, and for a very brief time near the end of his life, An'ichi Miyagi (a teacher claimed by Morio Higaonna), In addition to the three early te styles of karate a fourth Okinawan influence is that of Kanbun Uechi (1877–1948), At the age of 20 he went to Fuzhou in Fujian Province, China, to escape Japanese military conscription, While there he studied under Shushiwa, He was a leading figure of Chinese Nanpa Shorin-ken style at that time,[21] He later developed his own style of Uechi-ryū karate based on the Sanchin, Seisan, and Sanseiryu kata that he had studied in China,[22] Japan[edit] This section needs additional citations for verification, Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (May 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)See also: Japanese martial artsSee also: Karate in Japan Masters of karate in Tokyo (c, 1930s), from left to right, Kanken Toyama, Hironori Otsuka, Takeshi Shimoda, Gichin Funakoshi, Motobu Chōki, Kenwa Mabuni, Genwa Nakasone, and Shinken TairaGichin Funakoshi, founder of Shotokan karate, is generally credited with having introduced and popularized karate on the main islands of Japan, In addition many Okinawans were actively teaching, and are thus also responsible for the development of karate on the main islands, Funakoshi was a student of both Asato Ankō and Itosu Ankō (who had worked to introduce karate to the Okinawa Prefectural School System in 1902), During this time period, prominent teachers who also influenced the spread of karate in Japan included Kenwa Mabuni, Chōjun Miyagi, Motobu Chōki, Kanken Tōyama, and Kanbun Uechi, This was a turbulent period in the history of the region, It includes Japan's annexation of the Okinawan island group in 1872, the First Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895), the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905), the annexation of Korea, and the rise of Japanese militarism (1905–1945), Japan was invading China at the time, and Funakoshi knew that the art of Tang/China hand would not be accepted; thus the change of the art's name to "way of the empty hand," The dō suffix implies that karatedō is a path to self-knowledge, not just a study of the technical aspects of fighting, Like most martial arts practiced in Japan, karate made its transition from -jutsu to -dō around the beginning of the 20th century, The "dō" in "karate-dō" sets it apart from karate-jutsu, as aikido is distinguished from aikijutsu, judo from jujutsu, kendo from kenjutsu and iaido from iaijutsu, Gichin Funakoshi, founder of Shotokan KarateFunakoshi changed the names of many kata and the name of the art itself (at least on mainland Japan), doing so to get karate accepted by the Japanese budō organization Dai Nippon Butoku Kai, Funakoshi also gave Japanese names to many of the kata, The five pinan forms became known as heian, the three naihanchi forms became known as tekki, seisan as hangetsu, Chintō as gankaku, wanshu as enpi, and so on, These were mostly political changes, rather than changes to the content of the forms, although Funakoshi did introduce some such changes, Funakoshi had trained in two of the popular branches of Okinawan karate of the time, Shorin-ryū and Shōrei-ryū, In Japan he was influenced by kendo, incorporating some ideas about distancing and timing into his style, He always referred to what he taught as simply karate, but in 1936 he built a dojo in Tokyo and the style he left behind is usually called Shotokan after this dojo, The modernization and systemization of karate in Japan also included the adoption of the white uniform that consisted of the kimono and the dogi or keikogi—mostly called just karategi—and colored belt ranks, Both of these innovations were originated and popularized by Jigoro Kano, the founder of judo and one of the men Funakoshi consulted in his efforts to modernize karate, A new form of karate called Kyokushin was formally founded in 1957 by Masutatsu Oyama (who was born a Korean, Choi Yeong-Eui 최영의), Kyokushin is largely a synthesis of Shotokan and Gōjū-ryū, It teaches a curriculum that emphasizes aliveness, physical toughness, and full contact sparring, Because of its emphasis on physical, full-force sparring, Kyokushin is now often called "full contact karate", or "Knockdown karate" (after the name for its competition rules), Many other karate organizations and styles are descended from the Kyokushin curriculum, Practice[edit]See also: Okinawan kobudō and Japanese martial arts § Philosophical and strategic conceptsKarate can be practiced as an art (budō), self defense or as a combat sport, Traditional karate places emphasis on self-development (budō),[23] Modern Japanese style training emphasizes the psychological elements incorporated into a proper kokoro (attitude) such as perseverance, fearlessness, virtue, and leadership skills, Sport karate places emphasis on exercise and competition, Weapons are an important training activity in some styles of karate, Karate training is commonly divided into kihon (basics or fundamentals), kata (forms), and kumite (sparring), Kihon[edit]Main article: KihonKarate styles place varying importance on kihon, Typically this is performance in unison of a technique or a combination of techniques by a group of karateka, Kihon may also be prearranged drills in smaller groups or in pairs, Kata[edit] Motobu Chōki in Naihanchi-dachi, one of the basic karate stancesMain article: Karate kataKata (型:かた) means literally "shape" or "model," Kata is a formalized sequence of movements which represent various offensive and defensive postures, These postures are based on idealized combat applications, The applications when applied in a demonstration with real opponents is referred to as a Bunkai, The Bunkai shows how every stance and movement is used, Bunkai is a useful tool to understand a kata, To attain a formal rank the karateka must demonstrate competent performance of specific required kata for that level, The Japanese terminology for grades or ranks is commonly used, Requirements for examinations vary among schools, Kumite[edit]Main article: KumiteSparring in Karate is called kumite (組手:くみて), It literally means "meeting of hands," Kumite is practiced both as a sport and as self-defense training, Levels of physical contact during sparring vary considerably, Full contact karate has several variants, Knockdown karate (such as Kyokushin) uses full power techniques to bring an opponent to the ground, In kickboxing variants (for example K-1), the preferred win is by knockout, Sparring in armour, bogu kumite, allows full power techniques with some safety, Sport kumite in many international competition under the World Karate Federation is free or structured with light contact or semi contact and points are awarded by a referee, In structured kumite (yakusoku, prearranged), two participants perform a choreographed series of techniques with one striking while the other blocks, The form ends with one devastating technique (hito tsuki), In free sparring (Jiyu Kumite), the two participants have a free choice of scoring techniques, The allowed techniques and contact level are primarily determined by sport or style organization policy, but might be modified according to the age, rank and sex of the participants, Depending upon style, take-downs, sweeps and in some rare cases even time-limited grappling on the ground are also allowed, Free sparring is performed in a marked or closed area, The bout runs for a fixed time (2 to 3 minutes,) The time can run continuously (iri kume) or be stopped for referee judgment, In light contact or semi contact kumite, points are awarded based on the criteria: good form, sporting attitude, vigorous application, awareness/zanshin, good timing and correct distance, In full contact karate kumite, points are based on the results of the impact, rather than the formal appearance of the scoring technique, Dojo Kun[edit]Main article: Dojo kunIn the bushidō tradition dojo kun is a set of guidelines for karateka to follow, These guidelines apply both in the dojo (training hall) and in everyday life, Conditioning[edit]Okinawan karate uses supplementary training known as hojo undo, This utilizes simple equipment made of wood and stone, The makiwara is a striking post, The nigiri game is a large jar used for developing grip strength, These supplementary exercises are designed to increase strength, stamina, speed, and muscle coordination,[24] Sport Karate emphasizes aerobic exercise, anaerobic exercise, power, agility, flexibility, and stress management,[25] All practices vary depending upon the school and the teacher, Sport[edit]Gichin Funakoshi (船越 義珍) said, "There are no contests in karate,"[26] In pre–World War II Okinawa, kumite was not part of karate training,[27] Shigeru Egami relates that, in 1940, some karateka were ousted from their dojo because they adopted sparring after having learned it in Tokyo,[28] Karate is divided into style organizations,[29] These organizations sometimes cooperate in non-style specific sport karate organizations or federations, Examples of sport organizations include AAKF/ITKF, AOK, TKL, AKA, WKF, NWUKO, WUKF and WKC,[30] Organizations hold competitions (tournaments) from local to international level, Tournaments are designed to match members of opposing schools or styles against one another in kata, sparring and weapons demonstration, They are often separated by age, rank and sex with potentially different rules or standards based on these factors, The tournament may be exclusively for members of a particular style (closed) or one in which any martial artist from any style may participate within the rules of the tournament (open), The World Karate Federation (WKF) is the largest sport karate organization and is recognized by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) as being responsible for karate competition in the Olympic Games,[31] The WKF has developed common rules governing all styles, The national WKF organizations coordinate with their respective National Olympic Committees, WKF karate competition has two disciplines: sparring (kumite) and forms (kata), Competitors may enter either as individuals or as part of a team, Evaluation for kata and kobudō is performed by a panel of judges, whereas sparring is judged by a head referee, usually with assistant referees at the side of the sparring area, Sparring matches are typically divided by weight, age, gender, and experience,[32] WKF only allows membership through one national organization/federation per country to which clubs may join, The World Union of Karate-do Federations (WUKF)[33] offers different styles and federations a world body they may join, without having to compromise their style or size, The WUKF accepts more than one federation or association per country, Sport organizations use different competition rule systems,[29][32][34][35][36] Light contact rules are used by the WKF, WUKO, IASK and WKC, Full contact karate rules used by Kyokushinkai, Seidokaikan and other organizations, Bogu kumite (full contact with protective shielding of targets) rules are used in the World Koshiki Karate-Do Federation organization,[37] Shinkaratedo Federation use boxing gloves,[38] Within the United States, rules may be under the jurisdiction of state sports authorities, such as the boxing commission, In August 2016, the International Olympic Committee approved karate as an Olympic sport beginning at the 2020 Summer Olympics,[39][40] Karate, although not widely used in mixed martial arts, has been effective for some MMA practitioners,[41][42][43] Various styles of karate are practiced in MMA: Lyoto Machida and John Makdessi practice Shotokan;[44] Bas Rutten and Georges St-Pierre train in Kyokushinl;[45] and Michelle Waterson holds a black belt in American Free Style Karate, [46] Rank[edit] Karatekas wearing different colored beltsSee also: KyūIn 1924 Gichin Funakoshi, founder of Shotokan Karate, adopted the Dan system from the judo founder Jigoro Kano[47] using a rank scheme with a limited set of belt colors, Other Okinawan teachers also adopted this practice, In the Kyū/Dan system the beginner grades st*rt with a higher numbered kyū (e,g,, 10th Kyū or Jukyū) and progress toward a lower numbered kyū, The Dan progression continues from 1st Dan (Shodan, or 'beginning dan') to the higher dan grades, Kyū-grade karateka are referred to as "color belt" or mudansha ("ones without dan/rank"), Dan-grade karateka are referred to as yudansha (holders of dan/rank), Yudansha typically wear a black belt, Normally, the first five to six dans are given by examination by superior dan holders, while the subsequent (7 and up) are honorary, given for special merits and/or age reached, Requirements of rank differ among styles, organizations, and schools, Kyū ranks stress stance, balance, and coordination, Speed and power are added at higher grades, Minimum age and time in rank are factors affecting promotion, Testing consists of demonstration of techniques before a panel of examiners, This will vary by school, but testing may include everything learned at that point, or just new information, The demonstration is an application for new rank (shinsa) and may include kata, bunkai, self-defense, routines, tameshiwari (breaking), and kumite (sparring), Philosophy[edit]In Karate-Do Kyohan, Funakoshi quoted from the Heart Sutra, which is prominent in Shingon Buddhism: "Form is emptiness, emptiness is form itself" (shiki zokuze kū kū zokuze shiki),[48] He interpreted the "kara" of Karate-dō to mean "to purge oneself of selfish and evil thoughts ,,, for only with a clear mind and conscience can the practitioner understand the knowledge which he receives," Funakoshi believed that one should be "inwardly humble and outwardly gentle," Only by behaving humbly can one be open to Karate's many lessons, This is done by listening and being receptive to criticism, He considered courtesy of prime importance, He said that "Karate is properly applied only in those rare situations in which one really must either down another or be downed by him," Funakoshi did not consider it unusual for a devotee to use Karate in a real physical confrontation no more than perhaps once in a lifetime, He stated that Karate practitioners must "never be easily drawn into a fight," It is understood that one blow from a real expert could mean death, It is clear that those who misuse what they have learned bring dishonor upon themselves, He promoted the character trait of personal conviction, In "time of grave public crisis, one must have the courage ,,, to face a million and one opponents," He taught that indecisiveness is a weakness,[49] Etymology[edit]Karate was originally written as "Chinese hand" (唐手 literally "Tang dynasty hand") in kanji, It was later changed to a homophone meaning empty hand (空手), The original use of the word "karate" in print is attributed to Ankō Itosu; he wrote it as "唐手", The Tang Dynasty of China ended in AD 907, but the kanji representing it remains in use in Japanese language referring to China generally, in such words as "唐人街" meaning Chinatown, Thus the word "karate" was originally a way of expressing "martial art from China," Since there are no written records it is not known definitely whether the kara in karate was originally written with the character 唐 meaning China or the character 空 meaning empty, During the time when admiration for China and things Chinese was at its height in the Ryūkyūs it was the custom to use the former character when referring to things of fine quality, Influenced by this practice, in recent times karate has begun to be written with the character 唐 to give it a sense of class or elegance, — Gichin Funakoshi[50]The first documented use of a homophone of the logogram pronounced kara by replacing the Chinese character meaning "Tang Dynasty" with the character meaning "empty" took place in Karate Kumite written in August 1905 by Chōmo Hanashiro (1869–1945), Sino-Japanese relations have never been very good, and especially at the time of the Japanese invasion of Manchuria, referring to the Chinese origins of karate was considered politically incorrect,[51] In 1933, the Okinawan art of karate was recognized as a Japanese martial art by the Japanese Martial Arts Committee known as the "Butoku Kai", Until 1935, "karate" was written as "唐手" (Chinese hand), But in 1935, the masters of the various styles of Okinawan karate conferred to decide a new name for their art, They decided to call their art "karate" written in Japanese characters as "空手" (empty hand),[17] Another nominal development is the addition of dō (道:どう) to the end of the word karate, Dō is a suffix having numerous meanings including road, path, route, and way, It is used in many martial arts that survived Japan's transition from feudal culture to modern times, It implies that these arts are not just fighting systems but contain spiritual elements when promoted as disciplines, In this context dō is usually translated as "the way of ___", Examples include aikido, judo, kyudo, and kendo, Thus karatedō is more than just empty hand techniques, It is "The Way of the Empty Hand", Karate and its influence outside Japan[edit]Canada[edit]Karate began in Canada in the 1930s and 1940s as Japanese people immigrated to the country, Karate was practised quietly without a large amount of organization, During the Second World War, many Japanese-Canadian families were moved to the interior of British Columbia, Masaru Shintani, at the age of 13, began to study Shorin-Ryu karate in the Japanese camp under Kitigawa, In 1956 after 9 years of training with Kitigawa, Shintani travelled to Japan and met Hironori Otsuka (Wado Ryu), In 1958 Otsuka invited Shintani to join his organization Wado Kai, and in 1969 he asked Shintani to officially call his style Wado,[52] In Canada during this same time, karate was also introduced by Masami Tsuruoka who had studied in Japan in the 1940s under Tsuyoshi Chitose,[53] In 1954 Tsuruoka initiated the first karate competition in Canada and laid the foundation for the National Karate Association,[53] In the late 1950s Shintani moved to Ontario and began teaching karate and judo at the Japanese Cultural Centre in Hamilton, In 1966 he began (with Otsuka's endorsement) the Shintani Wado Kai Karate Federation, During the 1970s Otsuka appointed Shintani the Supreme Instructor of Wado Kai in North America, In 1979, Otsuka publicly promoted Shintani to hachidan (8th dan) and privately gave him a kudan certificate (9th dan), which was revealed by Shintani in 1995, Shintani and Otsuka visited each other in Japan and Canada several times, the last time in 1980 two years prior to Otsuka's death, Shintani died 7 May 2000,[52] Korea[edit]See also: Korea under Japanese ruleDue to past conflict between Korea and Japan, most notably during the Japanese occupation of Korea in the early 20th century, the influence of karate in Korea is a contentious issue,[54] From 1910 until 1945, Korea was annexed by the Japanese Empire, It was during this time that many of the Korean martial arts masters of the 20th century were exposed to Japanese karate, After regaining independence from Japan, many Korean martial arts schools that opened up in the 1940s and 50's were founded by masters who had trained in karate in Japan as part of their martial arts training, Won Kuk Lee, a Korean student of Funakoshi, founded the first martial arts school after the Japanese occupation of Korea ended in 1945, called the Chung Do Kwan, Having studied under Gichin Funakoshi at Chuo University, Lee had incorporated taekkyon, kung fu, and karate in the martial art that he taught which he called "Tang Soo Do", the Korean transliteration of the Chinese characters for "Way of Chinese Hand" (唐手道),[55] In the mid-1950s, the martial arts schools were unified under President Rhee Syngman's order, and became taekwondo under the leadership of Choi Hong Hi and a committee of Korean masters, Choi, a significant figure in taekwondo history, had also studied karate under Funakoshi, Karate also provided an important comparative model for the early founders of taekwondo in the formalization of their art including hyung and the belt ranking system, The original taekwondo hyung were identical to karate kata, Eventually, original Korean forms were developed by individual schools and associations, Although the World Taekwondo Federation and International Taekwon-Do Federation are the most prominent among Korean martial arts organizations, tang soo do schools that teach Japanese karate still exist as they were originally conveyed to Won Kuk Lee and his contemporaries from Funakoshi, Soviet Union[edit]Karate appeared in the Soviet Union in the mid-1960s, during Nikita Khrushchev's policy of improved international relations, The first Shotokan clubs were opened in Moscow's universities,[56] In 1973, however, the government banned karate—together with all other foreign martial arts—endorsing only the Soviet martial art of sambo, Failing to suppress these uncontrolled groups, the USSR's Sport Committee formed the Karate Federation of USSR in December 1978,[56] On 17 May 1984, the Soviet Karate Federation was disbanded and all karate became illegal again, In 1989, karate practice became legal again, but under strict government regulations, only after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 did independent karate schools resume functioning, and so federations were formed and national tournaments in authentic styles began,[56] United States[edit]See also: Karate in the United States After World War II, members of the US military learned karate in Okinawa or Japan and then opened schools in the USA, In 1945 Robert Trias opened the first dojo in the United States in Phoenix, Arizona, a Shuri-ryū karate dojo, In the 1950s, William J, Dometrich, Ed Parker, Cecil T, Patterson, Gordon Doversola, Donald Hugh Nagle, George Mattson and Peter Urban all began instructing in the US, Tsutomu Ohshima began studying karate under Shotokan's founder, Gichin Funakoshi, while a student at Waseda University, beginning in 1948, In 1957 Ohshima received his godan (fifth degree black belt), the highest rank awarded by Funakoshi, He founded the first university karate club in the United States at California Institute of Technology in 1957, In 1959 he founded the Southern California Karate Association (SCKA) which was renamed Shotokan Karate of America (SKA) in 1969, In the 1960s, Anthony Mirakian, Richard Kim, Teruyuki Okazaki, John Pachivas, Allen Steen, Gosei Yamaguchi (son of Gōgen Yamaguchi), Michael G, Foster and Pat Burleson began teaching martial arts around the country,[57] In 1961 Hidetaka Nishiyama, a co-founder of the Japan Karate Association (JKA) and student of Gichin Funakoshi, began teaching in the United States, He founded the International Traditional Karate Federation (ITKF), Takayuki Mikami was sent to New Orleans by the JKA in 1963, In 1964, Takayuki Kubota relocated the International Karate Association from Tokyo to California, Europe[edit]In the 1950s and 1960s, several Japanese karate masters began to teach the art in Europe, but it was not until 1965 that the Japan Karate Association (JKA) sent to Europe four well-trained young Karate instructors Taiji Kase, Keinosuke Enoeda, Hirokazu Kanazawa and Hiroshi Shirai,[58] Kase went to France, Enoeada to England and Shirai in Italy, These Masters maintained always a strong link between them, the JKA and the others JKA masters in the world, especially Hidetaka Nishiyama in the USA, United Kingdom[edit]See also: Karate in the United KingdomVernon Bell, a 3rd Dan Judo instructor who had been instructed by Kenshiro Abbe introduced Karate to England in 1956, having attended classes in Henry Plée's Yoseikan dojo in Paris, Yoseikan had been founded by Minoru Mochizuki, a master of multiple Japanese martial arts, who had studied Karate with Gichin Funakoshi, thus the Yoseikan style was heavily influenced by Shotokan,[59] Bell began teaching in the tennis courts of his parents' back garden in Ilford, Essex and his group was to become the British Karate Federation, On 19 July 1957, Vietnamese Hoang Nam 3rd Dan, billed as "Karate champion of Indo China", was invited to teach by Bell at Maybush Road, but the first instructor from Japan was Tetsuji Murakami (1927–1987) a 3rd Dan Yoseikan under Minoru Mochizuki and 1st Dan of the JKA, who arrived in England in July 1959,[59] In 1959 Frederick Gille set up the Liverpool branch of the British Karate Federation, which was officially recognised in 1961, The Liverpool branch was based at Harold House Jewish Boys Club in Chatham Street before relocating to the YMCA in Everton where it became known as the Red Triangle, One of the early members of this branch was Andy Sherry who had previously studied Jujutsu with Jack Britten, In 1961 Edward Ainsworth, another blackbelt Judoka, set up the first Karate study group in Ayrshire, Scotland having attended Bell's third 'Karate Summer School' in 1961,[59] Outside of Bell's organisation, Charles Mack traveled to Japan and studied under Masatoshi Nakayama of the Japan Karate Association who graded Mack to 1st Dan Shotokan on 4 March 1962 in Japan,[59] Shotokai Karate was introduced to England in 1963 by another of Gichin Funakoshi's students, Mitsusuke Harada,[59] Outside of the Shotokan stable of karate styles, Wado Ryu Karate was also an early adopted style in the UK, introduced by Tatsuo Suzuki, a 6th Dan at the time in 1964, Despite the early adoption of Shotokan in the UK, it was not until 1964 that JKA Shotokan officially came to the UK, Bell had been corresponding with the JKA in Tokyo asking for his grades to be ratified in Shotokan having apparently learnt that Murakami was not a designated representative of the JKA, The JKA obliged, and without enforcing a grading on Bell, ratified his black belt on 5 February 1964, though he had to relinquish his Yoseikan grade, Bell requested a visitation from JKA instructors and the next year Taiji Kase, Hirokazu Kanazawa, Keinosuke Enoeda and Hiroshi Shirai gave the first JKA demo at Kensington Town Hall on 21 April 1965, Hirokazu Kanazawa and Keinosuke Enoeda stayed and Murakami left (later re-emerging as a 5th Dan Shotokai under Harada),[59] In 1966, members of the former British Karate Federation established the Karate Union of Great Britain (KUGB) under Hirokazu Kanazawa as chief instructor[60] and affiliated to JKA, Keinosuke Enoeda came to England at the same time as Kanazawa, teaching at a dojo in Liverpool, Kanazawa left the UK after 3 years and Enoeda took over, After Enoeda’s death in 2003, the KUGB elected Andy Sherry as Chief Instructor, Shortly after this, a new association split off from KUGB, JKA England, An earlier significant split from the KUGB took place in 1991 when a group led by KUGB senior instructor Steve Cattle formed the English Shotokan Academy (ESA), The aim of this group was to follow the teachings of Taiji Kase, formerly the JKA chief instructor in Europe, who along with Hiroshi Shirai created the World Shotokan Karate-do Academy (WKSA), in 1989 in order to pursue the teaching of "Budo" karate as opposed to what he viewed as "sport karate", Kase sought to return the practice of Shotokan Karate to its martial roots, reintroducing amongst other things open hand and throwing techniques that had been side lined as the result of competition rules introduced by the JKA, Both the ESA and the WKSA (renamed the Kase-Ha Shotokan-Ryu Karate-do Academy (KSKA) after Kase’s death in 2004) continue following this path today, In 1975 Great Britain became the first team ever to take the World male team title from Japan after being defeated the previous year in the final, Italy[edit]Hiroshi Shirai, one of the original instructors sent by the JKA to Europe along with Kase, Enoeda and Kanazawa, moved to Italy in 1965 and quickly established a Shotokan enclave that spawned several instructors who in their turn soon spread the style all over the country, By 1970 Shotokan karate was the most spread martial art in Italy apart from Judo, Other styles such as Wado Ryu, Goju Ryu and Shito Ryu, although present and well established in Italy, were never able to break the monopoly of Shotokan, France[edit]France Shotokan Karate was created in 1964 by Tsutomu Ohshima, It is affiliated with another of his organizations, Shotokan Karate of America (SKA), However, in 1965 Taiji Kase came from Japan along with Enoeda and Shirai, who went to England and Italy respectively, and karate came under the influence of the JKA, Africa[edit]Karate has grown in popularity in Africa, particularly in South Africa and Ghana,[61][62][63] Film and popular culture[edit]Karate spread rapidly in the West through popular culture, In 1950s popular fiction, karate was at times described to readers in near-mythical terms, and it was credible to show Western experts of unarmed combat as unaware of Eastern martial arts of this kind,[64] By the 1970s, martial arts films had formed a mainstream genre that propelled karate and other Asian martial arts into mass popularity,[41] The Karate Kid (1984) and its sequels The Karate Kid, Part II (1986), The Karate Kid, Part III (1989) and The Next Karate Kid (1994) are films relating the fictional story of an American adolescent's introduction into karate,[65][66] Karate Kommandos, an animated children's show, with Chuck Norris appearing to reveal the moral lessons contained in every episode, Film st*rs and their stylesPractitionerFighting styleSonny ChibaKyokushin[67]Sean ConneryKyokushin[68]Hiroyuki SanadaKyokushin[69]Dolph LundgrenKyokushin[70]Michael Jai WhiteKyokushin[71]Yasuaki KurataShito-ryu[72]Fumio DemuraShitō-ryū[73]Don "The Dragon" WilsonGōjū-ryu[74]Richard NortonGōjū-ryu[75]Yukari OshimaGōjū-ryu[76][77]Leung Siu-LungGōjū-ryu[78]Wesley SnipesShotokan[79]Jean-Claude Van DammeShotokan[80]Jim KellyShōrin-ryū[81]Joe LewisShōrin-ryū[82]Tadashi YamashitaShōrin-ryū[83]Matt MullinsShōrei-ryū[84]Sho KosugiShindō jinen-ryū[85]Many other film st*rs such as Bruce Lee, Chuck Norris, Jackie Chan, Sammo Hung, and Jet Li come from a range of other martial arts, See also[edit]Karate portalMartial arts portalWikimedia Commons has media related to:Karate (category)Comparison of karate stylesJapanese martial artsKarate World ChampionshipsKarate at the Summer OlympicsKarate at the World GamesReferences[edit]^ Jump up to: a b Higaonna, Morio (1985), 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Well that man is one of the three in the world who have achieved the Black Belt in Karate, Karate is a branch of judo, but it is to judo what a spandau is to a catapult,,,", Such a description in a popular novel assumed and relied upon Karate being almost unknown in the West,Jump up ^ "The Karate Generation", Newsweek, 18 February 2010,Jump up ^ "Jaden Smith Shines in The Karate Kid", Newsweek, 10 June 2010,Jump up ^ "International Karate Organization KYOKUSHINKAIKAN Domestic Black Belt List As of Oct,2000", Kyokushin karate sōkan : shin seishin shugi eno sōseiki e, Aikēōshuppanjigyōkyoku: 62–64, 2001, ISBN 4-8164-1250-6,Jump up ^ Rogers, Ron, "Hanshi's Corner 1106" (PDF), Midori Yama Budokai, Retrieved 20 August 2011,Jump up ^ Kungfu Magazine: E-Zine Feature Article, Ezine,kungfumagazine,com, Retrieved on 21 November 2011, Archived 12 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine,Jump up ^ "Celebrity Fitness—Dolph Lundgren", Inside Kung Fu, Archived from the original on 29 November 2010, Retrieved 15 November 2010,Jump up ^ "Talking With…Michael Jai White", GiantLife, Retrieved 16 June 2010,Jump up ^ "Yasuaki Kurata Filmography", Retrieved 17 May 2017,Jump up ^ [1] Archived 28 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine,Jump up ^ "Martial Arts Legend", n,d, Retrieved 29 July 2013,Jump up ^ Black Belt Magazine March, 1994, p, 24, Books,google,com, March 1994, Retrieved 14 March 2013,Jump up ^ "Goju-ryu", n,d, Retrieved 24 June 2013,Jump up ^ "Yukari Oshima's Biography", Retrieved 24 June 2013,Jump up ^ "Goju-ryu", n,d, Retrieved 26 May 2014,Jump up ^ "Wesley Snipes: Action man courts a new beginning", Independent, London, 4 June 2010, Retrieved 10 June 2010,Jump up ^ "Why is he famous?", ASK MEN, Retrieved 15 June 2010,Jump up ^ "Martial arts biography - jim kelly", Retrieved 21 August 2013,Jump up ^ "Biography and Profile of Joe Lewis", Retrieved 12 August 2013,Jump up ^ [2] Archived 5 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine,Jump up ^ "Matt Mullins Biography", n,d, Retrieved 29 July 2013,Jump up ^ "`Ninja` Knockin`` Em Dead - Chicago Tribune", Articles,chicagotribune,com, 15 May 1986, Retrieved 5 March 2015,External links[edit]World Karate FederationOlympic Karate[show] v t eKarate[show] v t eJapanese martial arts[show] v t eMartial arts[show] v t eSummer Olympic sportsAuthority controlGND: 4029630-1 NDL: 00565037Categories: KarateJapanese martial artsHistory of Okinawa PrefectureMixed martial arts stylesSummer Olympic sports------------------------SOME GENERAL INFO ABOUT JUDOJudoFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaThis article is about the martial art and sport, For the computer programming environment, see JUDO (computer programming environment),Judo柔道Judo,svgKyuzo Mifune (left) and Kanō Jigorō (right)Kyuzo Mifune (left) and Kanō Jigorō (right)FocusGrapplingHardnessFull contactCountry of origin JapanCreatorKanō JigorōFamous practitionersSee: List of judokaParenthoodVarious koryū jujutsu schools, principally Tenjin Shin'yō-ryū and Kitō-ryūDescendant artsBrazilian jiu-jitsu, Kosen judo, SamboOlympic sportSince 1964[1] (men) and 1992[2] (women)Official websiteInternational Judo Federation (IJF)The KodokanJudo (柔道 jūdō, meaning "gentle way") was created as a physical, mental and moral pedagogy in Japan, in 1882, by Jigoro Kano (嘉納治五郎), It is generally categorized as a modern martial art which later evolved into a combat and Olympic sport, Its most prominent feature is its competitive element, where the objective is to either throw or takedown an opponent to the ground, immobilize or otherwise subdue an opponent with a pin, or force an opponent to submit with a joint lock or a choke, Strikes and thrusts by hands and feet as well as weapons defenses are a part of judo, but only in pre-arranged forms (kata, 形) and are not allowed in judo competition or free practice (randori, 乱取り), A judo practitioner is called a judoka, The philosophy and subsequent pedagogy developed for judo became the model for other modern Japanese martial arts that developed from koryū (古流, traditional schools), Contents [hide] 1History and philosophy1,1Early life of the founder1,2Founding of the Kodokan1,3Judo versus jujutsu2Judo waza (techniques)2,1Nage waza (throwing techniques)2,2Katame-waza (grappling techniques)2,3Atemi-waza (striking techniques)3Pedagogy3,1Randori (free practice)3,2Kata (forms)3,3Tandoku-renshu4Competitive judo4,1History of competitive judo4,2Current international contest rules4,2,1Weight divisions4,2,2Competition scoring4,2,3Penalties5In mixed martial arts6Alternative rulesets and derivative arts7Safety7,1Kansetsu and shime waza7,2Nage waza8Judoka (practitioner)9Judogi (uniform)10Organizations11Rank and grading12See also13Footnotes14Bibliography15Filmography16External linksHistory and philosophy[edit]Early life of the founder[edit] Jigoro KanoThe early history of judo is inseparable from its founder, Japanese polymath and educator Kanō Jigorō (嘉納 治五郎, Jigoro Kano, 1860–1938), born Shinnosuke Jigorō (新之助 治五郎, Jigorō Shinnosuke), Kano was born into a relatively affluent family, His father, Jirosaku, was the second son of the head priest of the Shinto Hiyoshi shrine in Shiga Prefecture, He married Sadako Kano, daughter of the owner of Kiku-Masamune sake brewing company and was adopted by the family, changing his name to Kano, He ultimately became an official in the Shogunal government,[3] Jigoro Kano had an academic upbringing and, from the age of seven, he studied English, shodō (書道, Japanese calligraphy) and the Four Confucian Texts (四書 Shisho) under a number of tutors,[4] When he was fourteen, Kano began boarding at an English-medium school, Ikuei-Gijuku in Shiba, Tokyo, The culture of bullying endemic at this school was the catalyst that caused Kano to seek out a Jūjutsu (柔術, Jujutsu) dōjō (道場, dojo, training place) at which to train,[4] Early attempts to find a jujutsu teacher who was willing to take him on met with little success, With the fall of the Tokugawa shogunate in the Meiji Restoration of 1868, jujutsu had become unfashionable in an increasingly westernised Japan, Many of those who had once taught the art had been forced out of teaching or become so disillusioned with it that they had simply given up, Nakai Umenari, an acquaintance of Kanō's father and a former soldier, agreed to show him kata, but not to teach him, The caretaker of Jirosaku's second house, Katagiri Ryuji, also knew jujutsu, but would not teach it as he believed it was no longer of practical use, Another frequent visitor, Imai Genshiro of Kyūshin-ryū (扱心流) school of jujutsu, also refused,[5] Several years passed before he finally found a willing teacher,[5] In 1877, as a student at the Tokyo-Kaisei school (soon to become part of the newly founded Tokyo Imperial University), Kano learned that many jujutsu teachers had been forced to pursue alternative careers, frequently opening Seikotsu-in (整骨院, traditional osteopathy practices),[6] After inquiring at a number of these, Kano was referred to Fukuda Hachinosuke (c,1828–1880),[7] a teacher of the Tenjin Shin'yō-ryū (天神真楊流) of jujutsu, who had a small nine mat dojo where he taught five students,[8] Fukuda is said to have emphasized technique over formal exercise, sowing the seeds of Kano's emphasis on randori (乱取り, randori, free practice) in judo, On Fukuda's death in 1880, Kano, who had become his keenest and most able student in both randori and kata (形, kata, pre-arranged forms), was given the densho (伝書, scrolls) of the Fukuda dojo,[9] Kano chose to continue his studies at another Tenjin Shin'yō-ryū school, that of Iso Masatomo (c,1820–1881), Iso placed more emphasis on the practice of "kata", and entrusted randori instruction to assistants, increasingly to Kano,[10] Iso died in June 1881 and Kano went on to study at the dojo of Iikubo Tsunetoshi (1835–1889) of Kitō-ryū (起倒流),[11] Like Fukuda, Iikubo placed much emphasis on randori, with Kitō-ryū having a greater focus on nage-waza (投げ技, throwing techniques),[12] Founding of the Kodokan[edit] Eisho-ji temple, TokyoIn February 1882, Kano founded a school and dojo at the Eisho-ji (永昌寺), a Buddhist temple in what was then the Shitaya ward of Tokyo (now the Higashi Ueno district of Taitō ward),[13] Iikubo, Kano's Kitō-ryū instructor, attended the dojo three days a week to help teach and, although two years would pass before the temple would be called by the name Kōdōkan (講道館, Kodokan, "place for expounding the way"), and Kano had not yet received his Menkyo (免許, certificate of mastery) in Kitō-ryū, this is now regarded as the Kodokan founding, The Eisho-ji dojo was a relatively small affair, consisting of a twelve mat training area, Kano took in resident and non-resident students, the first two being Tomita Tsunejirō and Shiro Saigo,[14] In August, the following year, the pair were granted shodan (初段, first rank) grades, the first that had been awarded in any martial art,[15] Judo versus jujutsu[edit] jūdō (柔道, "Judo"), written in kanjiCentral to Kano's vision for judo were the principles of seiryoku zen'yō (精力善用, maximum efficiency, minimum effort) and jita kyōei (自他共栄, mutual welfare and benefit), He illustrated the application of seiryoku zen'yō with the concept of jū yoku gō o seisu (柔よく剛を制す, softness controls hardness): In short, resisting a more powerful opponent will result in your defeat, whilst adjusting to and evading your opponent's attack will cause him to lose his balance, his power will be reduced, and you will defeat him, This can apply whatever the relative values of power, thus making it possible for weaker opponents to beat significantly stronger ones, This is the theory of ju yoku go o seisu,[16] Kano realised that seiryoku zen'yō, initially conceived as a jujutsu concept, had a wider philosophical application, Coupled with the Confucianist-influenced jita kyōei, the wider application shaped the development of judo from a bujutsu (武術, martial art) to a budō (武道, martial way), Kano rejected techniques that did not conform to these principles and emphasised the importance of efficiency in the execution of techniques, He was convinced that practice of jujutsu while conforming to these ideals was a route to self-improvement and the betterment of society in general,[17] He was, however, acutely conscious of the Japanese public's negative perception of jujutsu: At the time a few bujitsu (martial arts) experts still existed but bujitsu was almost abandoned by the nation at large, Even if I wanted to teach jujitsu most people had now stopped thinking about it, So I thought it better to teach under a different name principally because my objectives were much wider than jujitsu,[18] Kano believed that "jūjutsu" was insufficient to describe his art: although Jutsu (術) means "art" or "means", it implies a method consisting of a collection of physical techniques, Accordingly, he changed the second character to dō (道), meaning way, road or path, which implies a more philosophical context than jutsu and has a common origin with the Chinese concept of tao, Thus Kano renamed it Jūdō (柔道, judo),[19] Judo waza (techniques)[edit]See also: List of judo techniques and List of Kodokan judo techniquesThere are three basic categories of waza (技, techniques) in judo: nage-waza (投げ技, throwing techniques), katame-waza (固技, grappling techniques) and atemi-waza (当て身技, striking techniques),[20] Judo is most known for nage-waza and katame-waza,[21] Judo practitioners typically devote a portion of each practice session to ukemi (受け身, break-falls), in order that nage-waza can be practiced without significant risk of injury, Several distinct types of ukemi exist, including ushiro ukemi (後ろ受身, rear breakfalls); yoko ukemi (横受け身, side breakfalls); mae ukemi (前受け身, front breakfalls); and zenpo kaiten ukemi (前方回転受身, rolling breakfalls)[22] The person who performs a Waza is known as tori (取り, literally "taker") and the person to whom it is performed is known as uke (受け, "receiver"),[23] Nage waza (throwing techniques)[edit]Nage waza include all techniques in which tori attempts to throw or trip uke, usually with the aim of placing uke on his back, Each technique has three distinct stages: Kuzushi (崩し), the initial balance break;[24]Tsukuri (作り), the act of turning in and fitting into the throw;[25]Kake (掛け), the execution and completion of the throw,[25]Before an effective kuzushi can be performed, it is important to establish a firm grip (組み方, kumi kata),[26] Nage waza are typically drilled by the use of uchi komi (内込), repeated turning-in, taking the throw up to the point of kake,[27] Traditionally, nage waza are further categorised into tachi-waza (立ち技, standing techniques), throws that are performed with tori maintaining an upright position, and sutemi-waza (捨身技, sacrifice techniques), throws in which tori sacrifices his upright position in order to throw uke,[28] Tachi-waza are further subdivided into te-waza (手技, hand techniques), in which tori predominantly uses his arms to throw uke; koshi-waza (腰技, hip techniques) throws that predominantly use a lifting motion from the hips; and ashi-waza (足技, foot and leg techniques), throws in which tori predominantly utilises his legs,[28] Harai goshi (払腰, sweeping hip), a koshi-wazaNage-waza (投げ技)throwing techniquesTachi-waza (立ち技)standing techniquesTe-waza (手技)hand techniquesKoshi-waza (腰技)hip techniquesAshi-waza (足技)foot and leg techniquesSutemi-waza (捨身技)sacrifice techniquesMa-sutemi-waza (真捨身技)rear sacrifice techniquesYoko-sutemi-waza (橫捨身技)side sacrifice techniquesKatame-waza (grappling techniques)[edit]Katame-waza is further categorised into osaekomi-waza (押込技, holding techniques), in which tori traps and pins uke on his back on the floor; shime-waza (絞技, strangulation techniques), in which tori attempts to force a submission by choking or strangling uke; and kansetsu-waza (関節技, joint techniques), in which tori attempts to submit uke by painful manipulation of his joints,[29] A related concept is that of ne-waza (寝技, prone techniques), in which waza are applied from a non-standing position,[30] In competitive judo, Kansetsu-waza is currently limited to elbow joint manipulation,[31] Manipulation and locking of other joints can be found in various kata, such as Katame-no-kata and Kodokan goshin jutsu,[32] Juji gatame (十字固, cross lock)(armbar), a kansetsu-wazaKatame-waza (固技)grappling techniquesOsaekomi-waza (押込技)holding or pinning techniquesShime-waza (絞技)strangulation techniquesKansetsu-waza (関節技)Joint techniques (locks)Atemi-waza (striking techniques)[edit]Atemi-waza are techniques in which tori disables uke with a strike to a vital point, Atemi-waza are not permitted outside of kata,[33] Pedagogy[edit]Randori (free practice)[edit]Judo pedagogy emphasizes randori (乱取り, literally "taking chaos", but meaning "free practice"), This term covers a variety of forms of practice, and the intensity at which it is carried out varies depending on intent and the level of expertise of the participants, At one extreme, is a compliant style of randori, known as Yakusoku geiko (約束稽古, prearranged practice), in which neither participant offers resistance to their partner's attempts to throw, A related concept is that of Sute geiko (捨稽古, throw-away practice), in which an experienced judoka allows himself to be thrown by his less-experienced partner,[34] At the opposite extreme from yakusoku geiko is the hard style of randori that seeks to emulate the style of judo seen in competition, While hard randori is the cornerstone of judo, over-emphasis of the competitive aspect is seen as undesirable by traditionalists if the intent of the randori is to "win" rather than to learn,[35] Kata (forms)[edit] Jigoro Kano and Yoshiaki Yamashita performing Koshiki-no-kataSee also: KataKata (形, kata, forms) are pre-arranged patterns of techniques and in judo, with the exception of the Seiryoku-Zen'yō Kokumin-Taiiku, they are all practised with a partner, Their purposes include illustrating the basic principles of judo, demonstrating the correct execution of a technique, teaching the philosophical tenets upon which judo is based, allowing for the practice of techniques that are not allowed in randori, and to preserve ancient techniques that are historically important but are no longer used in contemporary judo,[36] There are ten kata that are recognized by the Kodokan today:[37] Randori-no-kata (乱取りの形, Free practice forms), comprising two kata:Nage-no-kata (投の形, Forms of throwing) Fifteen throws, practiced both left- and right-handed, three each from the five categories of nage waza: te waza, koshi waza, ashi waza, ma sutemi waza and yoko sutemi waza,[38]Katame-no-kata (固の形, Forms of grappling or holding), Fifteen techniques in three sets of five, illustrating the three categories of katame waza: osaekomi waza, shime waza and kansetsu waza,[39]Kime-no-kata (極の形, Forms of decisiveness), Twenty techniques, illustrating the principles of defence in a combat situation, performed from kneeling and standing positions, Attacks are made unarmed and armed with a dagger and a sword, This kata utilises atemi waza, striking techniques, that are forbidden in randori,[40]Kōdōkan goshinjutsu (講道館護身術, Kodokan skills of self-defence), The most recent recognised kata, comprising twenty-one techniques of defence against attack from an unarmed assailant and one armed with a knife, stick and pistol, This kata incorporates various jujutsu techniques such as wrist locks and atemi waza,[41]Jū-no-kata (柔の形, Forms of gentleness & flexibility), Fifteen techniques, arranged in three sets of five, demonstrating the principle of Jū and its correct use in offence and defence,[42]Gō-no-kata (剛の形, Forms of force), One of the oldest kata, comprising ten forms that illustrate the efficient use of force and resistance, Now rarely practiced,[43]Itsutsu-no-kata (五の形, The five forms), An advanced kata, illustrating the principle of seiryoku zen'yō and the movements of the universe,[44] The kata predates the creation of Kodokan and originated in Tenjin Shinyō-ryū,[45]Koshiki-no-kata (古式の形, Traditional forms), Derived from Kitō-ryū Jujutsu, this kata was originally intended to be performed wearing armour, Kano chose to preserve it as it embodied the principles of judo,[46]Seiryoku Zen'yō Kokumin Taiiku (精力善用国家体育, Maximum-efficiency national physical education), A series of exercises designed to develop the physique for judo,[47]Joshi-goshinhō (女性護身法, Methods of self-defence for women), An exercise completed in 1943, and of which the development was ordered by Jiro Nango, the second Kodokan president,[48]In addition, there are a number of commonly practiced kata that are not recognised by the Kodokan, Some of the more common kata include: Go-no-sen-no-kata (後の先の形) A kata of counter techniques developed at Waseda University in Tokyo, popularised in the West by Mikinosuke Kawaishi,[49]Nage-waza-ura-no-kata (投げ技裏の形) Another kata of counter techniques, created by Kyuzo Mifune,[50]Katame-waza ura-no-kata (固め技裏の形, Forms of reversing controlling techniques) a kata of counter-attacks to controlling techniques, attributed to Kazuo Itō[51][52]Tandoku-renshu[edit]Personal work,[53]Competitive judo[edit]History of competitive judo[edit] Yoshihiko Yoshimatsu attempting to throw Toshiro Daigo with an uchi mata in the final of the 1951 All-Japan Judo Championshipsshiai or jiai with rendaku (試合, Contest) is a vitally important aspect of judo, In 1899, Kano was asked to chair a committee of the Dai Nippon Butoku Kai to draw up the first formal set of contest rules for jujutsu, These rules were intended to cover contests between different various traditional schools of jujutsu as well as practitioners of Kodokan judo, Contests were 15 minutes long and were judged on the basis of nage waza and katame waza, excluding atemi waza, Wins were by two ippons, awarded in every four-main different path of winning alternatives, by "Throwing", where the opponent's back strikes flat onto the mat with sufficient force, by "Pinning" them on their back for a "sufficient" amount of time, or by Submission, which could be achieved via "Shime-waza" or "Kansetsu-waza", in which the opponent was forced to give himself or herself up or summon a referee's or corner-judge's stoppage, Finger, toe and ankle locks were prohibited,[54] In 1900, these rules were adopted by the Kodokan with amendments made to prohibit all joint locks for kyu grades and added wrist locks to the prohibited kansetsu-waza for dan grades, It was also stated that the ratio of tachi-waza to ne-waza should be between 70% to 80% for kyu grades and 60% to 70% for dan grades,[54] In 1916, additional rulings were brought in to further limit kansetsu waza with the prohibition of ashi garami and neck locks, as well as do jime,[55] These were further added to in 1925, The first time judo was seen in the Olympic Games was in an informal demonstration hosted by Kano at the 1932 Games,[56] However, Kano was ambivalent about judo's potential inclusion as an Olympic sport: I have been asked by people of various sections as to the wisdom and possibility of judo being introduced with other games and sports at the Olympic Games, My view on the matter, at present, is rather passive, If it be the desire of other member countries, I have no objection, But I do not feel inclined to take any initiative, For one thing, judo in reality is not a mere sport or game, I regard it as a principle of life, art and science, In fact, it is a means for personal cultural attainment, Only one of the forms of judo training, so-called randori or free practice can be classed as a form of sport, Certainly, to some extent, the same may be said of boxing and fencing, but today they are practiced and conducted as sports, Then the Olympic Games are so strongly flavored with nationalism that it is possible to be influenced by it and to develop "Contest Judo", a retrograde form as ju-jitsu was before the Kodokan was founded, Judo should be free as art and science from any external influences, political, national, racial, and financial or any other organized interest, And all things connected with it should be directed to its ultimate object, the "Benefit of Humanity", Human sacrifice is a matter of ancient history,[57] Nevertheless, judo became an Olympic sport for men in the 1964 Games in Tokyo, The Olympic Committee initially dropped judo for the 1968 Olympics, meeting protests,[58] Dutchman Anton Geesink won the first Olympic gold medal in the open division of judo by defeating Akio Kaminaga of Japan, The women's event was introduced at the Olympics in 1988 as a demonstration event, and an official medal event in 1992, Current international contest rules[edit] All-Japan Judo Championships, 2007 men's finalMain article: Judo rulesPenalties may be given for: passivity or preventing progress in the match; for safety infringements for example by using prohibited techniques, or for behavior that is deemed to be against the spirit of judo, Fighting must be stopped if a participant is outside the designated area on the mat,[59] Weight divisions[edit]There are currently seven weight divisions, subject to change by governing bodies, and may be modified based on the age of the competitors: Weight divisionsMenUnder 60 kg (130 lb; 9,4 st)60–66 kg (132–146 lb; 9,4–10,4 st)66–73 kg (146–161 lb; 10,4–11,5 st)73–81 kg (161–179 lb; 11,5–12,8 st)81–90 kg (179–198 lb; 12,8–14,2 st)90–100 kg (200–220 lb; 14–16 st)Over 100 kg (220 lb; 16 st)WomenUnder 48 kg (106 lb; 7,6 st)48–52 kg (106–115 lb; 7,6–8,2 st)52–57 kg (115–126 lb; 8,2–9,0 st)57–63 kg (126–139 lb; 9,0–9,9 st)63–70 kg (139–154 lb; 9,9–11,0 st)70–78 kg (154–172 lb; 11,0–12,3 st)Over 78 kg (172 lb; 12,3 st)Competition scoring[edit]A throw that places the opponent on his back with impetus and control scores an ippon (一本), winning the contest,[60] A lesser throw, where the opponent is thrown onto his back, but with insufficient force to merit an ippon, scores a waza-ari (技あり),[60] Formerly, two scores of waza-ari equalled an ippon waza-ari awasete ippon (技あり合わせて一本, ) and a throw that places the opponent onto his side scores a yuko (有効),[60] The International Judo Federation recently announced changes in evaluation of points, There will only be ippon and waza-ari scores given during a match with yuko scores now included within waza-ari, Multiple waza-ari scores are no longer converted into ippon scores,[61] Ippon is scored in ne-waza for pinning an opponent on his back with a recognised osaekomi-waza for 20 seconds or by forcing a submission through shime-waza or kansetsu-waza,[60] A submission is signalled by tapping the mat or the opponent at least twice with the hand or foot, or by saying maitta (まいった, I surrender),[60] A pin lasting for less than 20 seconds, but more than 10 seconds scores waza-ari (formerly waza-ari was awarded for holds of longer than 15 seconds and yuko for holds of longer than 10 seconds),[60] Formerly, there was an additional score that was lesser to yuko, that of Koka (効果),[60] This has since been removed,[62][63] If the scores are identical at the end of the match, the contest is resolved by the Golden Score rule, Golden Score is a sudden death situation where the clock is reset to match-time, and the first contestant to achieve any score wins, If there is no score during this period, then the winner is decided by Hantei (判定), the majority opinion of the referee and the two corner judges,[64] There have been changes to the scoring, In January 2013, the Hantei was removed and the "Golden Score" no longer has a time limit, The match would continue until a judoka scored through a technique or if the opponent is penalised (Shido), Penalties[edit]Two types of penalties may be awarded, A shido (指導 - literally "guidance") is awarded for minor rule infringements, A shido can also be awarded for a prolonged period of non-aggression, Recent rule changes allow for the first shidos to result in only warnings, If there is a tie, then and only then, will the number of shidos (if less than three) be used to determine the winner, After three shidos are given, the victory is given to the opponent, constituting an indirect hansoku-make (反則負け - literally "foul-play defeat"), but does not result in expulsion from the tournament, Note: Prior to 2017, the 4th shido was hansoku make, If hansoku make is awarded for a major rule infringement, it results not just in loss of the match, but in the expulsion from the tournament of the penalized player, In mixed martial arts[edit]Main article: Mixed martial artsSeveral judo practitioners have made an impact in mixed martial arts,[65][66][67] Notable judo-trained MMA fighters include Olympic medalists Hidehiko Yoshida (Gold, 1992), Naoya Ogawa (Silver, 1992), Paweł Nastula (Gold, 1996), Makoto Takimoto (Gold, 2000), Satoshi Ishii (Gold, 2008) and Ronda Rousey (Bronze, 2008), former Russian national judo championship Bronze medalist Fedor Emelianenko, Karo Parisyan, Don Frye, Antônio Silva, Oleg Taktarov, Rick Hawn, Hector Lombard, Daniel Kelly, Yoshihiro Akiyama and Dong-Sik Yoon,[68][69] Alternative rulesets and derivative arts[edit]Kano Jigoro's Kodokan judo is the most popular and well-known style of judo, but is not the only one, The terms judo and jujutsu were quite interchangeable in the early years, so some of these forms of judo are still known as jujutsu or jiu-jitsu either for that reason, or simply to differentiate them from mainstream judo, From Kano's original style of judo, several related forms have evolved—some now widely considered to be distinct arts: Kosen judo (高專柔道): Sometimes erroneously described as a separate style of judo, Kosen judo is a competition rules set of Kodokan judo that was popularized in the early 20th century for use in Japanese Special High Schools Championships held at Kyoto Imperial University,[70] The word "Kosen" is an acronym of Koto Senmon Gakko (高等専門学校, literally "Higher Professional School"), Kosen judo's focus on newaza has drawn comparisons with Brazilian jiu-jitsu,Russian judo: This distinctive style of judo was influenced by the Russian martial art called Sambo, It is represented by well-known coaches such as Alexander Retuinskih and Igor Yakimov, and mixed martial arts fighters such as Fedor Emelianenko and Karo Parisyan, In turn, Russian judo has influenced mainstream judo, with techniques such as the flying armbar being accepted into Kodokan judo,Sambo (especially Sport Sambo): Vasili Oshchepkov was the first European judo black belt under Kano, Oshchepkov went on to contribute his knowledge of judo as one of the three founders of Sambo, which also integrated various international and Soviet bloc wrestling styles and other combative techniques, Oshchepkov died during the political purges of 1937, In their History of Sambo, Brett Jacques and Scott Anderson wrote that in Russia "judo and SOMBO were considered to be the same thing"—albeit with a different uniform and some differences in the rules,[71]Brazilian jiu jitsuFreestyle Judo is a form of competitive judo practiced primarily in the USA, that retains techniques that have been removed from mainstream IJF rules,[72] Freestyle Judo is currently backed by the International Freestyle Judo Alliance (IFJA), The Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) officially sanctions Freestyle Judo in the United States of America,[73]Safety[edit]Kano's vision for judo was one of a martial way that could be practiced realistically, Randori (free practice) was a central part of judo pedagogy and shiai (competition) a crucial test of a judoka's understanding of judo,[74] Safety necessitated some basic innovations that shaped judo's development, Atemi waza (striking techniques) were entirely limited to kata (prearranged forms) early in judo's history, Kansetsu waza (joint manipulation techniques) were limited to techniques that focused on the elbow joint, Various throwing techniques that were judged to be too dangerous to practice safely were also prohibited in shiai, To maximise safety in nage waza (throwing techniques), judoka trained in ukemi (break falls) and practiced on tatami (rice straw mats),[citation needed] Kansetsu and shime waza[edit]The application of joint manipulation and strangulation/choking techniques is generally safe under controlled conditions typical of judo dojo and in competition, It is usual for there to be age restrictions on the practice and application of these types of techniques, but the exact nature of these restrictions will vary from country to country and from organization to organization,[citation needed] Nage waza[edit]Safety in the practice of throwing techniques depends on the skill level of both tori and uke, Inexpertly applied throws have the potential to injure both tori and uke, for instance when tori compensates for poor technique by powering through the throw, Similarly, poor ukemi can result in injury, particularly from more powerful throws that uke lacks the skill to breakfall from, For these reasons, throws are normally taught in order of difficulty for both tori and uke, This is exemplified in the Gokyo (五教, literally "five teachings"), a traditional grouping of throws arranged in order of difficulty of ukemi, Those grouped in Dai ikkyo (第一教, literally "first teaching") are relatively simple to breakfall from whereas those grouped in dai gokyo (第五教, literally "fifth teaching") are difficult to breakfall from,[citation needed] Judoka (practitioner)[edit]A practitioner of judo is known as a judoka (柔道家), The modern meaning of "judoka" in English is a judo practitioner of any level of expertise,[75] but traditionally those below the rank of 4th dan were called kenkyu-sei (研究生, trainees); and only those of 4th dan or higher were called "judoka", (The suffix -ka (家), when added to a noun, means a person with expertise or special knowledge on that subject), A judo teacher is called sensei (先生),[75] The word sensei comes from sen or saki (before) and sei (life) – i,e, one who has preceded you, In Western dojo, it is common to call an instructor of any dan grade sensei, Traditionally, that title was reserved for instructors of 4th dan and above,[citation needed] Judogi (uniform)[edit]Main article: Judogi The judogi is made from a heavy weave to withstand the strength of throwing and grappling,Judo practitioners traditionally wear white uniforms called 稽古着 (keikogi, keikogi) practice clothing or jūdōgi (柔道着, judogi, judo clothing),[76] sometimes abbreviated in the west as "gi", It comprises a heavy cotton kimono-like jacket called an uwagi (上衣, jacket), similar to traditional hanten (半纏, workers jackets) fastened by an obi (帯, obi, belt), coloured to indicate rank, and cotton draw-string zubon (ズボン, trousers),[77] Early examples of keikogi had short sleeves and trouser legs and the modern long-sleeved judogi was adopted in 1906,[78] The modern use of the blue judogi for high level competition was first suggested by Anton Geesink at the 1986 Maastricht IJF DC Meeting,[79] For competition, a blue judogi is worn by one of the two competitors for ease of distinction by judges, referees, and spectators, In Japan, both judoka use a white judogi and the traditional red obi (based on the colors of the Japanese flag) is affixed to the belt of one competitor, Outside Japan, a colored obi may also be used for convenience in minor competitions, the blue judogi only being mandatory at the regional or higher levels, depending on organization, Japanese practitioners and traditionalists tend to look down on the use of blue because of the fact that judo is considered a pure sport, and replacing the pure white judogi for the impure blue is an offense,[79] For events organized under the auspices of the International judo Federation (IJF), judogi have to bear the IJF Official Logo Mark Label, This label demonstrates that the judogi has passed a number of quality control tests to ensure it conforms to construction regulations ensuring it is not too stiff, flexible, rigid or slippery to allow the opponent to grip or to perform techniques,[80] Organizations[edit]Main article: List of judo organizationsThe international governing body for judo is the International Judo Federation (IJF), founded in 1951, Members of the IJF include the African Judo Union (AJU), the Pan-American Judo Confederation (PJC), the Judo Union of Asia (JUA), the European Judo Union (EJU) and the Oceania Judo Union (OJU), each comprising a number of national judo associations, The IJF is responsible for organising international competition and hosts the World Judo Championships and is involved in running the Olympic Judo events,[81] Rank and grading[edit]Main article: Rank in Judo Two children training in judo techniquesJudo is a hierarchical art, where seniority of judoka is designated by what is known as the kyū (級, kyū) -dan (段, dan) ranking system, This system was developed by Jigoro Kano and was based on the ranking system in the board game Go, [82] Beginning students progress through kyu grades towards dan grades, A judoka's position within the kyu-dan ranking system is displayed by the color of their belt, Beginning students typically wear a white belt, progressing through descending kyu ranks until they are deemed to have achieved a level of competence sufficient to be a dan grade, at which point they wear the kuro obi (黒帯, black belt), The kyu-dan ranking system has since been widely adopted by modern martial arts,[83] The ninth degree black belt kudan, and higher ranks, have no formal requirements and are decided by the president of the Kodokan, currently Kano Jigoro's grandson Yukimitsu Kano, As of 2011, fifteen Japanese men have been promoted to the tenth degree black belt judan by the Kodokan, three of whom are still alive;[83] the IJF and Western and Asian national federations have promoted another eleven who are not recognized (at that level of rank) by the Kodokan, On July 28, 2011, the promotion board of USA Judo awarded Keiko Fukuda the rank of 10th dan, who was the first woman to be promoted to judo's highest level, albeit not a Kodokan-recognized rank, Although dan ranks tend to be consistent between national organizations there is more variation in the kyū grades, with some countries having more kyū grades, Although initially kyū grade belt colours were uniformly white, today a variety of colours are used, The first black belts to denote a dan rank in the 1880s, initially the wide obi was used; as practitioners trained in kimono, only white and black obi were used, It was not until the early 1900s, after the introduction of the judogi, that an expanded colored belt system of awarding rank was created,[83] See also[edit]flagJapan portaliconCulture portalMartial arts portalJudo by countryList of celebrity judokaList of judo techniques, partial list of judo techniquesList of judokaList of World Champions in JudoFootnotes[edit]Jump up ^ Inman (2005) p, 10Jump up ^ The first Olympic competition to award medals to women judoka was in 1992; in 1988, women competed as a demonstration sport, Inman (2005) p, 11Jump up ^ Kano (2008) pp, 46–47^ Jump up to: a b Kano (2008) p, 1; Hoare (2009) p, 43^ Jump up to: a b Kano (2008) p, 2Jump up ^ Hoare (2009) p, 44Jump up ^ Fukuda (2004) p, 145Jump up ^ Kano (2008) pp, 3–4; Hoare (2009) pp, 45–47; Fukuda (2004) pp, 145–152, Keiko Fukuda 9th Dan (born 1913) is the granddaughter of Fukuda Hachinosuke, and is the last surviving direct student of Kano: Davis, Simon, "Be Strong, Be Gentle, Be Beautiful - Keiko Fukuda", United States Judo Federation, archived from the original on March 8, 2011, retrieved March 12, 2011Jump up ^ Kano (2008) p, 6; Hoare (2009) p, 47Jump up ^ Kano (2008) pp, 9–10Jump up ^ Kano (2008) p, 11Jump up ^ Kano (2005) p, 23Jump up ^ Hoare (2009) pp, 52–53, For location of Eisho-ji temple, see:"Way to Eisho-Ji Temple", Kodokan, archived from the original on March 11, 2011, retrieved March 14, 2011Jump up ^ Kano (2008) p, 20Jump up ^ Lowry (2006) p, 49Jump up ^ Kano (2005) pp, 39–40Jump up ^ For Kano's opinions on the wider applicability of jita kyōei to life see for example, Kano (2008) p, 107Jump up ^ Hoare (2009) p, 56Jump up ^ Judo had been used before then, as in the case of a jujutsu school that called itself Chokushin-ryū Jūdō (直信流柔道, Sometimes rendered as Jikishin-ryū Jūdō), but its use was rare,Jump up ^ Daigo (2005) p, 8Jump up ^ Numerous texts exist that describe the waza of judo in detail, Daigo (2005); Inokuma and Sato (1987); Kano (1994); Mifune (2004); and Ohlenkamp (2006) are some of the better examplesJump up ^ Kano (1994) pp, 45–54Jump up ^ Ishikawa and Draeger (1999) p, 179Jump up ^ Kano (1994) pp, 42–43; Mifune (2004) pp, 41–43^ Jump up to: a b Kano (1994) p, 44; Mifune (2004) p, 44Jump up ^ Tello, Rodolfo (2016), Judo: Seven Steps to Black Belt, Arlington, VA: Amakella Publishing, p, 33,Jump up ^ Takahashi (2005) pp, 39–43^ Jump up to: a b Daigo (2005) p, 10Jump up ^ For full coverage of katame waza techniques extant in current judo competition rules see Adams (1991), Kashiwazaki (1992) and Kashiwazaki (1997)Jump up ^ Koizumi, Gunji, "Ne-waza (Groundwork) and Atemi-waza (blows) in Judo", Judo, Budokwai Judo Quarterly Bulletin, Retrieved 11 September 2012,Jump up ^ Adams (1991)Jump up ^ Otaki & Draeger (1983) pp, 398–405; Kano (1982) pp, 192–203Jump up ^ Daigo (2005) p, 9; Harrison (1952) pp, 162–168Jump up ^ Ishikawa and Draeger (1999) p, 84Jump up ^ Kano (1994) p, 142; Ishikawa and Draeger (1999) p, 84Jump up ^ "What is a Kata?", umich,edu,Jump up ^ For a review of the ten official Kodokan kata, see Jones and Hanon (2010)Jump up ^ Kano (1994) pp, 148–159; Otaki and Draeger, pp, 73–109, 139–266Jump up ^ Kano (1994) pp, 160–172; Otaki and Draeger, pp, 110–138, 267–405Jump up ^ Kano (1994) pp, 173–191Jump up ^ Kano (1994) pp, 192–203Jump up ^ Kano (1994) pp, 204–219; Fukuda (2004) pp, 1–144Jump up ^ De Crée and Jones (2009a, 2009b, 2009c)Jump up ^ Kano (1994) pp, 220–223Jump up ^ De Crée (2012) pp, 56–107Jump up ^ Kano (1994) pp, 224–238Jump up ^ Kano (1994) pp, 239–251Jump up ^ De Crée and Jones (2011a, 2011b, 2011c)Jump up ^ Fromm and Soames (1982) pp, 71–72, 109Jump up ^ Mifune (2004) pp, 211–220Jump up ^ De Crée (2015) pp, 155–174Jump up ^ Itō (1970) pp, 1–111Jump up ^ Cf, Jigoro Kano, Kodokan Judo, Kodansha, USA, 2013, § Tandoku-renshu,^ Jump up to: a b Hoare (2005) pp, 4–7Jump up ^ Hoare (2009) p, 109Jump up ^ "The Contribution of Judo to Education by Jigoro Kano", Judoinfo,com, Retrieved 2016-02-21,Jump up ^ Koizumi (1947)Jump up ^ Black Belt Vol, 2, No, 2, Active Interest Media, Inc, Mar 1964, p, 27,Jump up ^ Administrator, "Judo Rules: Basic Rules of Judo", rulesofsport,com,^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g Takahashi (2005) pp, 18–20Jump up ^ "Wide consensus for the adapted rules of the next Olympic Cycle", IJF,org, December 9, 2016, retrieved June 2, 2017Jump up ^ "INT, JUDO FEDERATION : IJF Referee Commission : REFEREEING RULES ALTERATIONS : TEST EVENT ON WC JUNIOR BANGKOK'08" (PDF), Judoinfo,com, Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-03, Retrieved 2016-02-21,Jump up ^ "Evolution of Judo Contest Rules", Judoinfo,com, Retrieved 2016-02-21,Jump up ^ "Extended match (e,g, Golden Score Contest) | Judo Channel", Judo-ch,jp, Retrieved 2016-02-21,Jump up ^ "MMA Fan's Guide to Grappling: Judo", Bloody Elbow, 2013-07-15, Retrieved 2016-02-22,Jump up ^ Anthony Fusco (2012-08-20), "Judo "The Gentle Way": Why Judo Is so Underrated in MMA Today", Bleacher Report, Retrieved 2016-02-21,Jump up ^ Jonathan Snowden (2012-04-06), "The Gentle Way: Strikeforce Champion Ronda Rousey and the Birth of a Judo st*r", Bleacher Report, Retrieved 2016-02-21,Jump up ^ Jonathan Snowden (2012-04-11), "The Gentle Way Part II: Olympians Ronda Rousey and Rick Hawn Adapt to MMA", Bleacher Report, Retrieved 2016-02-21,Jump up ^ Erickson, Matt, "Is Ronda Rousey the savior judo has been waiting for?", MMAjunkie,com, Retrieved 2016-02-22,Jump up ^ Kashiwazaki (1997) pp, 14–15Jump up ^ "The History of Sombo", Members,tripod,com, Retrieved 2016-02-21,Jump up ^ http://image,aausports,org/dnn/judo/2016/2016JudoHandbook,pdfJump up ^ http://www,freestylejudo,org/Jump up ^ Kano, Jigoro, "The Contribution of Judo to Education", Judoinfo,com, Retrieved 10 September 2012,^ Jump up to: a b Inokuma and Sato (1987) p, 253Jump up ^ Inokuma and Sato (1987) p, 253; Lowry (2006) pp, 35–61Jump up ^ Lowry (2006) p, 39Jump up ^ Hoare (2005) p, 8^ Jump up to: a b "Introduction of the Blue Judogi", International Judo Federation, Archived from the original on 2007-09-12,Jump up ^ "Judogi Guidace", International Judo Federation, January 2011, retrieved March 11, 2011Jump up ^ International Judo Federation, retrieved March 13, 2011Jump up ^ "Go Ranks", Mechner, Retrieved 18 September 2017,^ Jump up to: a b c Ohlenkamp, Neil (March 25, 2007), "The Judo Rank System", JudoInfo,com, Retrieved 2007-10-15,Bibliography[edit]Adams, Neil (1991), Armlocks, Judo Masterclass Techniques, London: Ippon BooksCachia, Jeffrey (2009), Effective Judo, Sarasota, FL: Elite PublishingDaigo, Toshiro (2005), Kodokan Judo Throwing Techniques, Tokyo, Japan: Kodansha InternationalDe Crée, Carl (2015), "Kōdōkan jūdō's three orphaned forms of counter techniques – Part 3: The Katame-waza ura-no-kata ―"Forms of reversing controlling techniques"", Archives of Budo, 11: 155–174De Crée, Carl (2012), The origin, inner essence, biomechanical fundamentals, and current teaching and performance anomalies of Kōdōkan jūdō’s esoteric sixth kata: The Itsutsu-no-kata ―"Forms of five", Rome, Italy: University of RomeDe Crée, Carl; Jones, Llyr C, (2009a), "Kōdōkan Jūdō's Elusive Tenth Kata: The Gō-no-kata - "Forms of Proper Use of Force" - Part 1", Archives of Budo, 5: 55–73De Crée, Carl; Jones, Llyr C, (2009b), "Kōdōkan Jūdō's Elusive Tenth Kata: The Gō-no-kata - "Forms of Proper Use of Force" - Part 2", Archives of Budo, 5: 74–82De Crée, Carl; Jones, Llyr C, (2009c), "Kōdōkan Jūdō's Elusive Tenth Kata: The Gō-no-kata - "Forms of Proper Use of Force" - Part 3", Archives of Budo, 5: 83–95De Crée, Carl; Jones, Llyr C, (2011a), "Kōdōkan Jūdō's Inauspicious Ninth Kata: The Joshi goshinhō - "Self-defense methods for females" - Part 1", Archives of Budo, 7: 105–123De Crée, Carl; Jones, Llyr C, (2011b), "Kōdōkan Jūdō's Inauspicious Ninth Kata: The Joshi goshinhō - "Self-defense methods for females" - Part 2", Archives of Budo, 7: 125–137De Crée, Carl; Jones, Llyr C, (2011c), "Kōdōkan Jūdō's Inauspicious Ninth Kata: The Joshi goshinhō - "Self-defense methods for females" - Part 3", Archives of Budo, 7: 137–139Fromm, Alan; Soames, Nicolas (1982), Judo - The Gentle Way, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul LtdFukuda, Keiko (2004), Ju-No-Kata, Berkeley, California: North Atlantic BooksHarrison, E,J, (1952), Manual of Judo, London: FoulshamHoare, Syd (2005), "Development of judo competition rules" (PDF), sydhoare,com, retrieved September 16, 2012Hoare, Syd (2009), A History of Judo, London: Yamagi BooksInman, Roy (2005), The Judo Handbook, UK: Silverdale BooksInokuma, Isao; Sato, Noboyuki (1987), Best Judo, Tokyo, Japan: Kodansha InternationalIshikawa, Takahiko; Draeger, Donn F, (1999), Judo Training Methods, Boston, Massachusetts: Tuttle PublishingItō, Kazuo (1970), Jūdō no nage- to katame-no-ura-waza, Tōkyō: Seibunkan ShotenJones, Llyr C,; Hanon, Michael J, (2010), "The way of kata in Kodokan Judo", Journal of Asian Martial Arts, 19: 8–37Kano, Jigoro (1994), Kodokan Judo, Tokyo, Japan: KodanshaKano, Jigoro (2005), Naoki, Murata, ed,, Mind Over Muscle: Writings from the founder of Judo, Tokyo, Japan: KodanshaKano, Jigoro (2008), Watson, Brian N,, ed,, Judo Memoirs of Jigoro Kano, Victoria, BC: Trafford PublishingKashiwazaki, Katsuhiko (1992), Shimewaza, Judo Masterclass Techniques, London: Ippon BooksKashiwazaki, Katsuhiko (1997), Osaekomi, Judo Masterclass Techniques, London: Ippon BooksKoizumi, Gunji (April 1947), "1936 Conversation with Jigoro Kano", Budokwai BulletinLaw, Mark (2007), The Pyjama Game, A Journey Into Judo, London, UK: Aurum Press LtdLowry, Dave (2006), In the dojo, A guide to the rituals and etiquette of the Japanese martial arts, Boston, MA: WeatherhillMifune, Kyuzo (2004), The Canon of Judo: Classic teachings on principles and techniques, Tokyo, Japan: KodanshaOhlenkamp, Neil (2006), Judo Unleashed: Essential Throwing & Grappling Techniques for Intermediate to Advanced Martial Artists, Maidenhead: McGraw-HillOtaki, Tadao; Draeger, Donn F, (1997), Judo Formal Techniques: Complete guide to Kodokan randori no kata (reprint ed,), Clarendon, Vermont: Tuttle PublishingTakahashi, Masao (2005), Mastering Judo, Champaign, Illinois: Human KineticsFilmography[edit]Akira Kurosawa, Sanshiro Sugata (姿三四郎 Sugata Sanshirō, aka Judo Saga), 1943,Akira Kurosawa, Sanshiro Sugata Part II (續姿三四郎 Zoku Sugata Sanshirō, aka Judo Saga II), 1945,External links[edit]Find more aboutJudoat Wikipedia's sister projectsDefinitions from WiktionaryMedia from Wikimedia CommonsNews from WikinewsQuotations from WikiquoteTexts from WikisourceData from WikidataInternational Judo Federation (IJF)—The worldwide governing body for judoAll judoka profiles at Judoinside,comKodokan Judo Institute—Headquarters of judo (Kano Jigoro's school)[show]Articles and topics related to judoAuthority controlGND: 4028822-5Categories: JudoDōCombat sportsGendai budoSummer Olympic sportsJapanese martial artsSport in JapanGrapplingMixed martial arts stylesSports originating in Japan THANKS FOR LOOKING!!! 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Product TypeTextbook SubjectSports & Recreation
Country/Region of ManufactureUnited States Special AttributesIllustrated
Educational LevelCollege Publication Year1993
LanguageEnglish FormatPaperback
Product TypeTextbook
SubjectSports & Recreation
Country/Region of ManufactureUnited States
Special AttributesIllustrated
Educational LevelCollege
Publication Year1993
LanguageEnglish
FormatPaperback

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