Dawoud Bey Jason, 2003 Inkjet Print approximately 12" X 11 1/2"; matted 11 1/4" X 20" Bey, Dawoud (né: David Edward Smikle). (b. Queens, NY, 1953; active Chicago, IL, 2015) Bibliography and Exhibitions MONOGRAPHS AND SOLO EXHIBITIONS: Amherst (MA). Fine Arts Center, University of Massachusetts. DAWOUD BEY. 1996. Solo exhibition. Andover (MA). Addison Gallery of American Art, Phillips Exeter Academy. DAWOUD BEY: Photographic Portraits. 1992. Solo exhibition. Andover (MA). Addison Gallery of American Art, Phillips Exeter Academy. DAWOUD BEY: Recent Photographic Portraits. 1997. Solo exhibition. Andover (MA). Addison Gallery of American Art, Phillips Exeter Academy. Photographs by DAWOUD BEY. September 4-December 30, 2007. Solo exhibition. Atlanta (GA). High Museum of Art. DAWOUD BEY: Picturing the South: The Commission Project. 1996. Solo exhibition. Baltimore (MD). Walters Art Museum. Portraits Re/Examined: A DAWOUD BEY Project. Thru February 16, 2009. Solo exhibition. Bey, Dawoud. CARRIE MAE WEEMS. 2009. In: BOMB Magazine 108 (Summer 2009). Compelling conversation between two great photographers. 4to (11 x 9 in.), wraps. Bey, Dawoud. In the Spirit of Minkisi: the art of DAVID HAMMONS. 1994. In: Third Text 27 (Summer 1994):45-54, color illus., bibliog. Birmingham (AL). Birmingham Museum of Art. DAWOUD BEY: The Birmingham Project. September 8-December 2, 2013. Solo exhibition. An exhibition that symbolically commemorates the four young girls whose lives were lost on September 15, 1963, in the bombing of the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church, as well as the two Birmingham boys who lost their lives in the resulting violence that day, Virgil Ware and Johnny Robinson. [Traveled to: Mary Boone Gallery, New York, NY, Thru June 28, 2014.] Boston (MA). Howard Yezerski Gallery. DAWOUD BEY: Pictures 1975-2005. November 2-December 18, 2007. Solo exhibition. Brooklyn (NY). BACA Downtown Center for the Arts. DAWOUD BEY: Brooklyn Street Portraits. 1988. Solo exhibition. Brooklyn (NY). Rotunda Gallery, BRIC. DAWOUD BEY: Photographs. 1992. Solo exhibition. Cambridge (MA). Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University. DAWOUD BEY. 1991. Solo exhibition. Charlotte (NC). The Light Factory. DAWOUD BEY: Portraits. 1997. Solo exhibition. Chicago (IL). Art Institute of Chicago. DAWOUD BEY: Harlem U.S.A. May 12-September 9, 2012. Solo exhibition of the complete five year series of street photographs in Bey's "Harlem U.S.A," with additional new work. Chicago (IL). Art Institute of Chicago. The JAMES VANDERZEE Studio. January 25-April 25, 2004. 36 pp., 22 color illus. Texts by Colin Westerbeck, Dawoud Bey, James Vanderzee. 8vo (8.5 x 9.6 in.), wraps. Chicago (IL). David and Alfred Smart Museum of Art, University of Chicago. DAWOUD BEY: The Chicago Project, In Collaboration with Dan Collison and Elizabeth Meister. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004. 128 pp., 86 illus. (78 in color) plus audio CD. 8vo (25 x 24 cm.), wraps; CD. Chicago (IL). DePaul University Art Museum. DAWOUD BEY: Portraits in Context. April 10-June 22, 2014. Exhibition of Bey's street portraits, alongside work by other artists selected by Bey from the Museum's collection. Chicago (IL). Museum of Contemporary Photography, Columbia College. DAWOUD BEY: Polaroid Portraits. 1993. Solo exhibition. Chicago (IL). Renaissance Society, University of Chicago. DAWOUD BEY, Picturing People. May 13-June 24, 2012. Solo retrospective exhibition. [Review: Kyle MacMillan, Chicago Sun-Times, May 23, 2012.] Chicago (IL). Rhona Hoffman Gallery. DAWOUD BEY: New Photographic Work. April 26-May 31, 2002. Solo exhibition. Chicago (IL). Rhona Hoffman Gallery. DAWOUD BEY: Recent Work. 1997. Solo exhibition. Chicago (IL). Rhona Hoffman Gallery at Gallery 312. DAWOUD BEY: Recent Work. 1999. Solo exhibition. Cleveland (OH). Cleveland Museum of Art. DAWOUD BEY Photographs: Portraits. 1994. Solo exhibition. Columbus (OH). Wexner Center for the Arts, Ohio State University. DAWOUD BEY. 1996. Solo residency exhibition. Detroit (MI). Detroit Institute of Arts. DAWOUD BEY: Detroit Portraits. April 4-August 1, 2004. Solo exhibition. Work created during a five-week residency at Chadsey High School in Detroit. Images are accompanied by student texts. Fishman, Elly. Q&A with Dawoud Bey: Harlem, U.S.A.'. 2012. In: The Chicago Reader (May 2, 2012) Flushing (NY). Queens Museum of Art. DAWOUD BEY. April 22-September 27, 1998. Solo exhibition. Gambier (OH). Olin Art Gallery, Kenyon College. DAWOUD BEY. 1994. Solo exhibition. Houston (TX). Contemporary Arts Museum. Perspectives 160: DAWOUD BEY: Class Pictures. March 14-May 11, 2008. 15 pp. exhib. cat., 8 b&w illus. Text by Valerie Cassel Oliver. London (UK). Photographers' Gallery. DAWOUD BEY. 1995. Solo exhibition. Long Island City (NY). P.S. 1 Contemporary Art Center. DAVID HAMMONS: Rousing the Rubble. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1991. 96 pp., 80 illus., 5 color, numerous double-page. Intro. by Alanna Heiss; texts by Steve Cannon, Kellie Jones, Tom Finkelpearl. Photo essays by Dawoud Bey and Bruce Talamon. [Traveled to Institute of Contemporary Art, Philadelphia; San Diego Museum of Art, La Jolla.] 4to (29 cm.), cloth, pictorial dust jacket. First ed. Madison (NJ). Drew University. DAWOUD BEY: Photographs from the Streets. 1993. Solo exhibition. Minneapolis (MN). Walker Art Center. DAWOUD BEY: Portraits 1975-1995. 1995. 128 pp. exhib. cat., 53 illus. (16 in color), exhib. checklist of 82 works, biog., awards, exhibs., colls. Critical texts by A.D. Coleman, Jessica Hagedorn and Kellie Jones; interview with artist by Jock Reynolds. Excellent survey of Bey's work of the past two decades from street images shot in Harlem and Brooklyn to the more recent Polaroid studio portraits. [Traveled to: Albright-Knox Gallery, Buffalo, NY; Chicago Cultural Center, Chicago, IL; Virginia Beach Center for the Arts, VA; El Paso Museum, TX ; The Newark Museum, NJ; Jersey City Museum, NJ; Robeson Center Gallery, Newark, NJ; Cleveland Center for Contemporary Art, St. Louis, MO; and the Barbican Centre, London, UK.] [Review: Barry Schwabsky, "Redeeming the Humanism in Portraiture," NYT, April 20, 1997.] 4to (11 x 8.56 in.), wraps. First ed. New Haven (CT). Yale University Art Gallery. DAWOUD BEY: Portraits of New Haven Teenagers. 1999. Solo exhibition. New York (NY). Aperture Gallery. DAWOUD BEY: Class Pictures. January 10-February 28, 2008. Solo exhibition. Photographic portraits of teenagers from all parts of the economic, racial, and ethnic spectrum in both public and private high schools in Detroit; Lawrence and Andover, Massachusetts; Orlando; San Francisco; and New York City. [Traveled to Weatherspoon Art Museum, Greensboro, NC; Indianapolis Museum of Art, September 26-November 23; and other venues.] New York (NY). Cinque Gallery. DAWOUD BEY: Recent Photographs. 1983. Solo exhibition. New York (NY). David Beitzel Gallery. DAWOUD BEY. 1996. Solo exhibition. New York (NY). Gorney Bravin + Lee. DAWOUD BEY. April 15-May 15, 2004. Solo exhibition. New York (NY). Gorney Bravin + Lee. DAWOUD BEY. Thru June 1, 2002. Solo exhibition. Larger-than-life portrait images of high school students. New York (NY). Hunter College. DAWOUD BEY: Puerto Rico: A chronicle. 1984. Solo exhibition. New York (NY). Ledel Gallery. DAWOUD BEY: Recent Photographs. 1990. Solo exhibition. (Catalogue). New York (NY). Studio Museum in Harlem. DAWOUD BEY: Harlem, USA. 1979. Solo exhibition. New York (NY). Studio Museum in Harlem. DAWOUD BEY's Harlem USA. November 11, 2010-March 13, 2011. Solo exhibition. Pomona (NJ). Richard Stockton College of New Jersey. DAWOUD BEY: Photographs. January 25-February 10, 1993. Solo exhibition. Portland (OR). Blue Sky Gallery. DAWOUD BEY. 1986. Solo exhibition. Reynolds, Jock and Taro Nettleton. Class Pictures: Photographs by DAWOUD BEY. Aperture, 2007. 154 pp., color illus. Large-scale color portraits of students taken over a fifteen-year span at high schools across the United States. Depicting teenagers from a wide economic, social and ethnic spectrum--and intensely attentive to their poses and gestures--Bey has created a highly diverse group portrait of a generation that intentionally challenges teenage stereotypes. 4to, cloth, d.j. Salzburg (Austria). Salzburger Kunstverein. DAVID HAMMONS: Been There and Back. August 4-September 27, 1995. 47 pp. exhib. cat., illus. (some in color), bibliog. Text by Silvia Eiblmayr and photographer Dawoud Bey. In English and German. [Traveled to: Galerie Christine Konig, Vienna, September 1-October 31, 1995.] [Review: Christian Kravagna, "David Hammons," Artforum International (January 1996):93.] 4to (27 cm.), wraps. First ed. San Francisco (CA). Rena Bransten Gallery. DAWOUD BEY. 2001. Solo exhibition. San Francisco (CA). Rena Bransten Gallery. DAWOUD BEY. 1996. Solo exhibition. Sancho, Victoria A-T. Respect and Representation: DAWOUD BEY's portraits of individual identity. 1998. In: Third Text 44 (Autumn 1998):55-68. Southampton (NY). Parrish Art Museum. DAWOUD BEY: The Southampton Project. 1999. Solo exhibition. Stockholm (Sweden). Galerie Nordenhake. DAWOUD BEY. 1998. Solo exhibition. Tokyo (Japan). Gallery Aquaqua. AMIR BEY. 1996. Solo exhibition. Tokyo (Japan). Gallery Saoh. AMIR BEY. 1996. Solo exhibition. GENERAL BOOKS AND GROUP EXHIBITIONS: ALTSCHULER, BRUCE, ed. Collecting the New: Museums and Contemporary Art. Princeton University Press, 2005. 208 pp., illus. Unfortunately discussion of a museum collecting African or African American art is ghettoized in two essays about specialized museum collections (as if no other museum professional would consider such a purchase.) Passing mention of 70+ African American artists (only 14 women), most in the essay by Lowery Stokes Sims (Director, Studio Museum in Harlem) "Collecting the Art of African Americans at the Studio Museum in Harlem: Positioning the 'New' from the Perspective of the Past." The African artists are primarily clustered in the text by Pamela McClusky (Curator of African and Oceanic Art, Seattle Art Museum) "The Unconscious Museum: Collecting Contemporary African Art without Knowing It." 8vo (9.2 x 6.1 in.), cloth, d.j. First ed. ANDOVER (MA). Addison Gallery of American Art, Phillips Exeter Academy. Faces of the Addison: Portraits of the Collection. 1994. Group exhibition. Included: Dawoud Bey. ANDOVER (MA). Addison Gallery of American Art, Phillips Exeter Academy. Get the Picture: Photographs from the Collection. 1999. Group exhibition. Included: Dawoud Bey, Adrian Piper. ANDOVER (MA). Addison Gallery of American Art, Phillips Exeter Academy. On the Street: Photographs from the Permanent Collection. 2000. Group exhibition. Included: Dawoud Bey. ANDOVER (MA). Addison Gallery of American Art, Phillips Exeter Academy. The Addison Gallery of American Art: 65 Years. 1996. Group exhibition. Included: Dawoud Bey, et al. ANN ARBOR (MI). University of Michigan Museum of Art. Embracing Eatonville. January 20-March 18, 2007. Group exhibition of works from the Light Work collection. The exhibition looks at the spirit and character of Eatonville through the work of contemporary photographers Dawoud Bey, Lonnie Graham, Carrie Mae Weems, and Deborah Willis, each of whom have created a new body of work for this exhibition, exploring the importance of place to individual and collective identity. ANNANDALE-ON-HUDSON (NY). Center for Curatorial Studies, Bard College. a/drift. October 26, 1996-January 5, 1997. 108 pp. exhib. cat., 101 illus. (39 in color, artists' statements. Group exhibition of 81 artists. Curated and edited by Joshua Decter. Includes: Dawoud Bey, Nayland Blake, Coco Fusco, Renée Green, Lyle Ashton Harris, Glenn Ligon, Adrian Piper, Gary Simmons. 4to, wraps. First ed. APPIAH, KWAME ANTHONY and HENRY LOUIS GATES, Jr., eds. Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience. Oxford University Press, 1999; 2005. 5 Vols. 4500 pp., 1000 photographs, maps, illus. Expanded to 8 vols. No new information or in-depth discussion of the visual arts. Names of visual artists included in the accounts of each period of black history are often lumped into a one sentence list; very few have additional biographical entries. [As of 2011, far more substantial information on most of the artists is available from Wikipedia than is included in this Encyclopedia.] Includes mention of: James Presley Ball, Jean-Michel Basquiat, David A. Bailey, Edward M. Bannister, Richmond Barthé, Cornelius Battey, Romare Bearden, Dawoud Bey, Everald Brown, Elizabeth Catlett, Dana Chandler, Roland Charles, Barbara Chase-Riboud, Albert V. Chong, Robert H. Colescott, Allan R. Crite, Beauford Delaney, Joseph Delaney, Murry Depillars, Jeff Donaldson, Aaron Douglas, Robert S. Duncanson, Meta Vaux Warrick Fuller, the Goodridge Brothers, Rex Goreleigh, Tapfuma Gutsa, Palmer Hayden, Lyle Ashton Harris, Chester Higgins, Joshua Johnson, Sargent Johnson, William H. Johnson, Ben Jones, Seydou Keita, Lois Mailou Jones, William (Woody) Joseph, Wifredo Lam, Jacob Lawrence, Edmonia Lewis, Fern Logan, Stephen Marc, Lynn Marshall-Linnemeier, Willie Middlebrook, Scipio Moorhead, Archibald Motley, Gordon Parks, Horace Pippin, Prentiss H. Polk, James A. Porter, Elizabeth Prophet, Faith Ringgold, Alison Saar, Betye Saar, Chéri Samba, Augusta Savage, Jeffrey Scales, Addison L. Scurlock, Charles Sebree, Johannes Segogela, Twins Seven- even, Coreen Simpson, LornaSimpson, Moneta Sleet, Marvin & Morgan Smith, Renée Stout, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Hank Willis Thomas, Dox Thrash, James Vanderzee, Christian Walker, the Wall of Respect, Laura Wheeler Waring, Augustus Washington, Carrie Mae Weems, Charles White, Cynthia Wiggins, Carla Williams, Pat Ward Williams, et al. The entry on African Women Artists includes an odd and out-of-date collection of names: Elizabeth Olowu, Agnes Nyanhongo, Alice Sani, Inji Efflatoun, Grace Chigumira, Theresa Musoke, Palma Sinatoa, Elsa Jacob, and Terhas Iyasu. Hopefully future editions will follow the path of the substantially expanded edition of 2005 and will alter the overall impression that black visual artists are not worth the time and attention of the editors. [Note: Now out-of-print and available only through exorbitant subscription to the Oxford African American Studies Center (OAASC) a single database incorporating multiple Oxford encyclopedias, ongoing addiitions will apparently be unavailable to individuals or to most small libraries in the U.S. or worldwide.] 4to (29 cm.; 10.9 x 8.6 in.), cloth. Seond ed. ATLANTA (GA). Hagedorn Foundation Gallery. Documents: City Life. July 31-September 29, 2009. Group exhibition by four legendary photographers: Dawoud Bey, Paul DAmato, white photographer Wayne F. Miller, and Malick Sidibé. BAILEY, DAVID A., IAN BAUCOM, and SONIA BOYCE, eds. Shades of Black: assembling black arts in 1980s Britain. Durham: Duke University Press, 2005. xxv, 340 pp., color plates, illus., index. Includes (many only in passing): Ajamu, Romare Bearden, Dawoud Bey, Zarina Bhimji, Frank Bowling, Sonia Boyce, Eddie Chambers, Allan DeSouza, Uzo Egonu, Rotimi Fani-Kayode, Mikki Ferrill, Joy Gregory, Lyle Ashton Harris, Lubaina Himid, Claudette Johnson, Isaac Julien, Roshini Kempadoo, Marc Latamie, Dave Lewis, Glann Ligon, Donald Locke, Whitfield Lovell, Steve McQueen, Ronald Moody, Ngozi Onwurah, Horace Ove, Keith Piper's "Wait, Did I Miss Something? Some Personal Musings on the 1980s and Beyond," Adrian Piper, Ingrid Pollard, Marlon Riggs, Veronica Ryan, Hussein Shariffe, Yinka Shonibare, Vincent Stokes, Maud Sulter, Kara Walker, Maxine Walker, Carrie Mae Weems, Aubrey Williams, et al. 4to (26 cm.; 10.5 x 8.25 in.), cloth, d.j. Billops, Camille. Three Photographers: Dawoud Bey, Fern Logan, Shawn Walker. New York: Hatch-Billops Collection, 1990. In: Artist and Influence 9 (1990): (129)-41. Panel discussion between the three artists, brief biogs. for each. BIRMINGHAM (AL). Birmingham Museum of Art. Etched in Collective History. August 18-November 17, 2013. Group exhibition of 60 works by 30 artists in memory of the Sixteenth St. Baptist Church bombing. Curated by Ron Platt, and Jeffreen Hayes. Included: Art Bacon, Radcliffe Bailey, Dawoud Bey, Thornton Dial, Theaster Gates, Hank Kearsley, Whitfield Lovell, Dave McKenzie, Betye Saar, Shinique Smith, Jefferson Pinder, Hank Willis Thomas, et al. BLAIR, SARAH. Harlem Crossroads: Black Writers and the Photograph in the Twentieth Century. Princeton (NJ): Princeton University Press, 2007. 353 pp., illus. 8vo (23.8 x 16.2 cm.) BOSTON (MA). Museum of Fine Arts. Face and Figure in Contemporary Art. 1997. Group exhibition. Included: Dawoud Bey. BROCKTON (MA). Fuller Museum of Art. The New Face of the Portrait. 1994. Exhib. cat., illus. Includes: Dawoud Bey. BROKAW, TOM (Foreword). American Character: A Photographic Journey. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 2009. Exhibition and book featuring the perspective of eleven photographers. Includes: Dawoud Bey photographs of a diverse cross-section of young Americans near Chicago's Columbia College. A 7-city touring exhibition. (New York; Edison Place Gallery, Washington, DC; Philadelphia, Chicago, St. Louis, San Francisco and Los Angeles.) [Also issued in limited edition of 350 with signed original print by one of the photographers.] 4to, cloth, d.j. First ed. BRONX (NY). En Foco. Nueva Luz 1, no. 2. En Foco. Features: Coreen Simpson, Jules T. Allen, Dawoud Bey; essay by Lucy Lippard. 4to, wraps. BRONX (NY). En Foco. Nueva Luz 3, no. 3. En Foco. Features: Accra Shepp, Conrad Barclay, Hilton Braithwaite. Text by Dawoud Bey. 4to, wraps. BROOKLYN (NY). Brooklyn Museum of Art, Community Gallery. Clinton Hill Artists. September 16-October 21, 1979. 4 pp. brochure. Group exhibition. Included: Yvonne Bandy, Che Baraka, Dawoud Bey, Gilbert Fletcher, and Marilyn Nance. BROOKLYN (NY). Department of Art, Long Island University. John Bennette: A Photographic Collection in Progress,. January 30-February 24, 1990. Group exhibition. Included: Jules Allen, Dawoud Bey, Albert Chong, Roy DeCarava, Fern Logan, Coreen Simpson BROOKLYN (NY). Fuchs Projects. Up, Close & Personal. April 4-May 13, 2014. Group exhibition. Curated by Ruben Natal-San Miguel. Included: Dawoud Bey, Bayeté Ross Smith, Hank Willis Thomas. BURTON, ORVILLE VERNON AND DAVID O'BRIEN, eds. Remembering Brown at Fifty. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2009. 435 pp. See particularly Section III: The Arts and Brown, includes: Sekou Sundiata, "Why Colored Faces in High Places Just Won't Do;" John Jennings, "The Chance Project;" Ralph Lemon, "What Was Always There;" David O'Brian and Carrie Mae Weems, "Art and Integration: An Interview with Carrie Mae Weems;" David O'Brien, "Social Studies: Eight Artists Address Brown" (a partial reconstruction of an exhibition including Dawoud Bey, Sanford Biggers, Brett Cook-Dizney, Virgil Marti, Gary Simmons, and Carrie Mae Weems.) CHICAGO (IL). Art Institute of Chicago. A Century of Collecting: African American Art in the Art Institute of Chicago. February 15-May 18, 2003. Group exhibition. Curated by Daniel Schulman, associate curator of modern and contemporary art. 60 artists (over half contemporary) including: Benny Andrews, Radcliffe Bailey, Richmond Barthé, Jean-Michel Basquiat, Romare Bearden, Dawoud Bey, Hilda Wilkinson Brown, Margaret Burroughs, William S. Carter, Elizabeth Catlett, Edward Clark, Kerry Stuart Coppin, Eldzier Cortor, Allan Rohan Crite, Charles C. Dawson, Aaron Douglas, John E. Dowell, Beauford Delaney, Joseph Delaney, Melvin Edwards, Walter Ellison, Sam Gilliam, David Hammons, William Harper, George Herriman, Earlie Hudnall, Jr., Richard Hunt, Joshua Johnson, Rashid Johnson, Sargent Johnson, Joseph Kersey, Jacob Lawrence, Norman Lewis, Glenn Ligon, Kerry James Marshall, Willie Middlebrook, Keith Morrison, Archibald J. Motley, Marion Perkins, Allie Pettway, Jessie T. Pettway, Robert Pious, Adrian Piper, Horace Pippin, Martin Puryear, Faith Ringgold, William Edouard Scott, Vincent Smith, Nelson Stevens, Alma Thomas, Bob Thompson, Henry Ossawa Tanner, James Vanderzee, Kara Walker, Carrie Mae Weems, Gearldine Westbrook, Charles White, Sarah Ann Wilson, Hale Woodruff, Joseph E. Yoakum. CHICAGO (IL). Art Institute of Chicago. Beyond the Photographic Frame. April 24-September 12, 1999. Group exhibition. Included: Dawoud Bey. CHICAGO (IL). David and Alfred Smart Museum of Art, University of Chicago. Space/Sight/Self. November 19, 1998-January 10, 1999. Exhib. cat., illus. Curated by Laura Letinsky. Included: Dawoud Bey, Byron Kim, and Ana Mendieta. CHICAGO (IL). DePaul University Art Museum. Re: Chicago: Highlights from the Permanent Collection. September 16, 2011-March 4, 2012. 86 pp. exhib. cat., color illus. Texts by by Robert Cozzolino, Wendy Greenhouse, Kirsten Jensen and Lynne Warren. Group exhibition of work by 40 artists, each selected by a different curator. Includes: Dawoud Bey, Nick Cave, Richard Hunt, Kerry James Marshall. CHICAGO (IL). Hyde Park Art Center. Are We There Yet. July 20-September 28, 2008. Solo exhibition of photographs and video-based work curated by Dawoud Bey. CHICAGO (IL). Hyde Park Art Center. Cut, Pulled, Colored & Burnt. August 25-October 5, 2002. Group exhibition. Curated by Michael Rooks. Included: Dawoud Bey, Brett Cook-Dizney, Rashid Johnson, Lauren Kelly. CHICAGO (IL). LaSalle Bank, N.A. One of a Kind: Portraits from the LaSalle Bank Photography Collection. 2007. 119 pp. exhib. cat., 22 color and 40 tritone illus. Foreword by Thomas C. Heagy; text by Carol EhlersIncluded: Dawoud Bey, Roy DeCarava, Seydou Keita, Gordon Parks, Carrie Mae Weems. 4to (29.3 x 27.2 cm.), cloth, d.j. First ed. CHICAGO (IL). Mayor's Office, City of Chicago. The Chicago Public Art Guide. Chicago: Dept. of Public Affairs,. 92 pp., approx. 150 color illus., intro. text by Gregory G. Knight. Contains index of works by region, branch library installations, special projects, map, index of artists with titles of work. Includes color illus. of the following works: Richard Hunt (Freeform, 1993, stainless steel sculpture, State of Illinois Building); Preston Jackson (Irv Kupcinet Memorial, 2006, bronze cast portrait sculpture, Wabash Ave./approach to Irv Kupcinet Bridge.) Works at the Harold Washington Library Center: Houston Conwill and Estella Conwill Majozo (Du Sable's Journey, 1991, terrazzo and inlaid brass floor design); Jacob Lawrence (Events in the Life of Harold Washington, 1991, ceramic tile mural.) Works in the collection of the Harold Washington Library Center: Faith Ringgold (The Winner, 1988, painted quilt); Muneer Bahauddeen (sculpture); John Bankston (painting); William Dawson (sculptures); Robert Dilworth (painting); Richard Hunt (drawing); Preston Jackson (sculpture); Calvin Jones (painting); Bertrand Phillips (painting); David Philpot (sculptures); Arnaldo Roche-Rabell (painting); Tim Rollins + K.O.S. (painting); Alison Saar (sculpture); Lorna Simpson (photographic print); Fan Warren (drawings). At the Legler Branch Library: Elizabeth Catlett (Floating Family, 1996, carved wood); and Kerry James Marshall (Knowledge and Wonder, 1996, mural painting). At the Austin Senior Satellite Center: Brook Collins (Family Mosaics, 2006, 15 photographs) and Melvin King (Follette Park and Selma March, 2006, paintings). At the Rosemont busline station: Martin Puryear (River Road Ring, 1986, wood sculpture). At the 4th District Police Station: Amir Nour (Untitled, 1980, rolled steel semi-spheres). In Bronzeville/along Dr. Martin Luther King Drive: Alison Saar (Monument to the Great Northern Migration, 1994, bronze figure sculpture); art benches by: Willie Cole, Geraldine McCullough; Ed Dwight (Blues Sculptures - Four Musicians, 2005, bronze sculptures, at 47th St./Dr. Martin Luther King Drive). Chicago Police Dept. Headquarters /Michigan Ave.: 4 quilts by Gladys Henry, Laverne Brackens, Sherry Byrd and Sara Byrd - four generations of African American quiltmakers. At Chicago International Airport: Dawoud Bey (Chicago Couples, 2000, photographic print); Richard Hunt (Flight Forms, 2001, stainless steel.) At the Thurgood Marshall Branch Library: Venus Blue (They All Had Something in Common, 1995, quilt). At the Woodson Branch Library: Bernard Williams (sculpture). At the Rogers Park Branch Library: Al Tyler (paintings). At the Uptown Branch Library: Mr. Imagination (installation). At Mabel Manning Branch Library: Dawoud Bey (photographs) and Willie Carter (painting). At Logan Square Branch Library: Arnaldo Roche-Rabell (paintings). At West Chicago Branch Library: Nick Cave (fabric). At Brainerd Branch Library: Preston Jackson (sculpture). At Douglass Branch Library: Emilio Cruz (banners.). At Woodson Branch Library: Richard Hunt (sculpture), Charles Searles (sculpture), and Bernard Williams (sculpture). At Wrightwood-Ashburn Branch Library: Candida Alvarez (stained glass) and Gerald Griffin (collage). At Avalon Branch Library: Stephen Marc (photographs). At Bessie Coleman Branch Library: Laverne Brackens (quilt) and Arbie Williams (quilt.) At Chicago Bee Branch Library: Carrie Mae Weems (painting/mixed media), Derek Webster (sculpture), and Gregg Spears (painting). At Jeffery Manor Branch Library: Marva Lee Pitchford Jolly (ceramic installation). At Kelly Branch Library: Robert Dilworth (painting) and Jacob Lawrence (lithograph). At Pullman Branch Library: Orisegun Olomidun (painting) and Bernard Williams (mural). At South Chicago: Kerry James Marshall (mural). At South Shore Branch Library: Muneer Bahauddeen (sculpture and mosaic) and Laverne Brackens (quilt). West Pullman Branch Library: Marcus Akinlana (mural and mixed media). [See: explorechicago.org] pdf file: www.explorechicago.org/etc/...art.../ENTIRE_PA_WEB.pdf CHICAGO (IL). Museum of Contemporary Art (MCA). Life, Death, Love, Hate, Pleasure, Pain: Selected Works from the MCA Collection. November 16, 2002- April 20, 2003. 384 pp. exhib. cat., 225 color illus. of approx. 190 works. Edited by Kari Dahlgren, Trisha Beck. Introductory essay by Elizabeth Smith. A two- or three-page spread is devoted to each artist, including one or more photo illustrations and a concise essay. Includes: Dawoud Bey, Stan Douglas, David Hammons, Richard Hunt, Byron Kim, Wifredo Lam, Glenn Ligon, Kerry James Marshall, Paul Pfeiffer, Adrian Piper, Martin Puryear, Yinka Shonibare, Gary Simmons, Lorna Simpson, Kara Walker, et al. 4to (30.9 x 23 cm.; 12.2 x 9.3 in.), cloth. First ed. CHICAGO (IL). Museum of Contemporary Photography, Columbia College. In Sight: Recent Additions to the Permanent Collection. June 9-August 5, 2006. Group exhibition. Included: Dawoud Bey, Lorna Simpson. CHICAGO (IL). Museum of Contemporary Photography, Columbia College. Photography's Multiple Roles: Art, Document, Market, Science. 1998. 254 pp. exhib. cat., 170 b&w illus. Texts by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, Denise Miller, Eugenia Parry, Ed Paschke, F. David Peat, Naomi Rosenblum, Franz Schulze and Rod Slemmons. Explores the multiple roles of photography as viewed through the MCP's collection of American photography of the 1960s, 70s, 80s and 90s. Included: Dawoud Bey, Carrie Mae Weems. 4to (11 x 10 in.; 28 x 25 cm.), wraps. CHICAGO (IL). Museum of Contemporary Photography, Columbia College. Selections From the Midwest Photographer's Project. 1998. Group exhibition. Included: Dawoud Bey. CHICAGO (IL). Rhona Hoffman Gallery. Commemorating Thirty Years, Part III, 1991-2007. May 18-June 22, 2007. Group exhibition. Included: Dawoud Bey, Lyle Ashton Harris, Adam Pendleton, Tim Rollins and K.O.S., Lorna Simpson, Mickalene Thomas, Carrie Mae Weems, Kehinde Wiley. CHICAGO (IL). South Side Community Art Center. Maleness to Manhood: Reclamation of the Young Black Male. September 6-October 5, 2013. Group exhibition. Curated by Raymond A. Thomas and Dayo Laoye. Included: Najjar Abdul-Musawwir, Marcus Alleyne, Floyd Atkins, Sherman Beck, Dawoud Bey, Hebru Brantley, Paul Branton, Roger Carter, Robert Lewis Clark, Calvin A. Coleman, Keith Conner, George Crump, Sura Dupart, Ted Ellis, Ted Feaster, Reynaldo Ferdinand, Stephen Flemister, Gerald Griffin, Adam Guichard, Andre Guichard, Al Hawkins, Clifton Henri, Isidore Howard, Bryant Johnson, Melvin King, Thomas Lucas, Dayo Laoye, Faheem Majeed, Ka-El Mycal, Eric Nix, Turtel Onli, Nii Oti, Mark Richardson, Jonathon Romain, Ken Simmons, Tony Smith, Rahmaan Statik, Raymond A. Thomas, Tyress Upton, Tony Wade, Raub Welch, Ron West, Bernard Williams, Doug Williams, Tom Williams. CHICAGO (IL). Stephen Daiter Gallery. Andre Kertesz: Observations, Thoughts, Reflections. An Exhibition of Photographs from 1914-1985. Essays by Curators, Colleagues, Friends and Collectors. March 11-May 27, 2005. 128 pp. text, illustrated with approx. 50 b&w photographs. Includes text by Dawoud Bey. Published to accompany the exhibition. 4to, gray silk boards, dust jacket. Ed. of 1000. CHICAGO (IL). Terra Museum of American Art. Indivisible: Stories of American Community. 2000. Group exhibition. Included: Dawoud Bey, et al. [Traveled to: Akron Art Museum, Akron, OH; Center for Creative Photography, Tucson, AZ; North Carolina Museum of Art, Raleigh, NC; Museum of Contemporary Art, San Diego, CA; John and Mable Ringling Museum of Art, Sarasota, FL; Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, PA; Anchorage Museum of History and Art, AK; San Antonio Museum of Art, San Antonio, TX.] CHICAGO (IL). The FLAG Art Foundation at Chicago Expo. Shaq Loves People. Thru September 21, 2014. Group exhibition. CLEVELAND (OH). Cleveland Museum of Art. A City Seen: Photographs from the George Gund Foundation Collection. November 17, 2002-January 26, 2003. Exhib. cat., illus. Group exhibition of 12 artists. Included: Dawoud Bey. Photographs of Cleveland from the Cuyahoga River to Lake Erie, through local neighborhoods, public schools, arts institutions, and urban gardens. CLEVELAND (OH). Museum of Contemporary Art. From Then To Now: Masterworks of Contemporary African American Art. January 29-May 9, 2010. Group exhibition of work by 27 artists. Curated by Margo Ann Crutchfield. Included: Radcliffe Bailey. Romare Bearden, Dawoud Bey, Chakaia Booker, Willie Cole, Robert Colescott, Dexter Davis, Leonardo Drew, Sam Gilliam, René Green, Trenton Doyle Hancock, Mark Howard, Richard Hunt, Rashid Johnson, Glenn Ligon, Alvin Loving, Kerry James Marshall, John L. Moore, Bradley McCallum and Jacqueline Tarry, Adam Pendleton, Faith Ringgold, Alison Saar, Lorna Simpson, Alma Thomas, Kara Walker, Carrie Mae Weems and Kehinde Wiley. the first time that holdings of contemporary African-American art from five local collections the AMAM, the Akron Art Museum, the Cleveland Museum of Art, the Cleveland Clinic Collection, and the Progressive Collection have been shown together. CLEVELAND (OH). Museum of Contemporary Art. Then to Now: Masterworks of Contemporary African American Art featuring the work of Dexter Davis '90. January 29-May 9, 2010. Group exhibition of work by 27 artists. Curated by Margo Ann Crutchfield. Included: Romare Bearden, Dawoud Bey, Willie Cole, Dexter Davis, Leonardo Drew, Renée Green, David Hammons, Glenn Ligon, John L. Moore, Alison Saar, Lorna Simpson, Jacqueline Tarry, Alma Thomas, Kara Walker, Carrie Mae Weems, Kehinde Wiley, et al. CRAWFORD, JOE, ed. The Black Photographers Annual Vol. 4 (1980). Brooklyn: Another View, 1980. 104 pp., 79 full-page b&w illus. Intro. by John A. Williams, essays on Parks and Saunders, interview with James Vanderzee. Includes: Jules Allen, Jeanne Moutoussamy-Ashe, Anthony Barboza, Ronald Barboza, Dawoud Bey, Carroll Parrott Blue, Adger W. Cowans, Cary Beth Cryor, Louis Draper, Sharon C. Farmer, Roland Freeman, Keith Hale, Robert Houston, Marilyn Nance, Gordon Parks, Jacqueline LaVetta Patten, Paul Phillips, Richard Saunders, Moneta Sleet, Beuford Smith, Hamilton S. Smith, Ming Smith, Frank Smith, Frank Stewart, Gerald Straw, James Vanderzee, Mel Wright. 4to, printed papered boards. First ed. DETROIT (MI). Elaine L. Jacob Gallery, Wayne State University Department of Art. Community Interactions. September 26-November 21, 2003. Group exhibition. Included: Dawoud Bey (photographs of children), Brett Cook-Dizney (a mixed media piece involving community video interviews and a spray painting) and Tyree Guyton who exhibited a piece entitled Noahs Ark which had been originally beached on the lawn of his Heidelberg Project. The Ark looks like a painted and decorated fun-park type boat overflowing with a mountain of stuffed animals. DETROIT (MI). Museum of Contemporary Art (MOCAD). Becoming: Photographs from the Wedge Collection. September 12-December 28, 2008. Group exhibition of works from the collection of Kenneth Montague. Included: Henry Clay Anderson, Dawoud Bey, Mohamed Camara, Calvin Dondo, Samuel Fosso, Joy Gregory, Tony Gleaton, Seydou Keita, Megan Morgan, Dennis Morris, Zwelethu Mthethra, J.D. 'Okhai Ojeikere, Dawit L. Petros, Charlie Phillips, Wayne Salmon, Jamal Shabazz, Malick Sidibé, Hank Willis Thomas, Mickalene Thomas, James Vanderzee, Nontsikelelo "Lolo" Veleko. DURHAM (NC). Nasher Museum of Art, Duke University. Becoming: Photographs from the Wedge Collection. August 11, 2011-January 8, 2012. Group exhibition of 100+ original photographic portraits of people of color by 60 global artists. [Not the same as the exhibition by this title at MOCAD in 2008 which was an all-black photo show.] Included: Artists in the exhibition: Henry Clay Anderson, James Barnor, Dawoud Bey, Deanna Bowen, Vanley Burke, Clement Cooper, William Cordova, Calvin Dondo, Rotimi Fani-Kayodé, Tony Gleaton, Joy Gregory, white South African artist Pieter Hugo, Ayana Vellissia Jackson, Rashid Johnson, Seydou Keďta, Deana Lawson, Christina Leslie, Oumar Ly, Sabelo Mlangeni, Megan Morgan, Dennis Morris, Zanele Muholi, J.D. 'Okhai Ojeikere, Horace Ové, Dawit L. Petros, Charlie Phillips, Athi-Patra Ruga, Wayne Salmon, Jamel Shabazz, Malick Sidibé, Xaviera Simmons, Mickalene Thomas, Hank Willis Thomas, James VanDerZee, Cecil Norman Ward, Carrie Mae Weems, and approx. two dozen white artists. EDINBURGH (Scotland). Royal Scottish Academy. Transatlantic Connections. 1998. Group exhibition. Included: Dawoud Bey. [Traveled throughout Scotland.] FRYE, DANIEL J. African American Visual Artists: an annotated bibliography of educational resource materials. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2001. xvi, 378 pp. Many misspellings of artists' names and a handful of white artists included. 8vo (23 cm.), cloth. GORE, AL and TIPPER GORE. The Spirit of Family. New York: Henry Holt, 2002. 208 pp. A three-page introduction and a smattering of quotes from John Milton, Plato and others, this publication showcases more than 250 color and b&w photographs of contemporary American families. Includes photographs by: Anthony Barboza, Dawoud Bey, Linda Day Clark, Gerald Cyrus, Eli Reed, Bayete Ross Smith, Hank Willis Thomas. 4to (10.9 x 8.6 in.), cloth, d.j. HALL, STUART and MARK SEALY, eds. Different: Historical Context Contemporary Photographers and Black Identity. London and New York: Phaidon, 2001. 207 pp., b&w and color illus. (most full-page), index of artists. Major text by Stuart Hall. Work by black artists from the U.S., Britain, Caribbean, and Africa, exploring images of their identity. Includes: Ajamu, Faisal Abdu'allah, Vincent Allen, David A. Bailey, Oladélé Bamgboyé, Dawoud Bey, Zarina Bhimji, Vanley Burke, Mama Casset, Albert V. Chong, Clement Cooper, Rotimi Fani-Kayode, Samuel Fosso, Armet Francis, Remy Gastambide, Bob Gosani, Joy Gregory, George Hallett, Lyle Ashton Harris, Seydou Keita, Roshini Kempadoo, Peter Max Khondola, Alf Kumalo, Anthony Lam, Eric Lesdema, Dave Lewis, Peter Magubane, Ricky Maynard, Eustaguio Neves, Horace Ove, Gordon Parks, Eileen Perrier, Ingrid Pollard, Richard Samuel Roberts, Franklyn Rodgers, Faizal Sheikh, Yinka Shonibare, Malick Sidibé, Lorna Simpson, Clarissa Sligh, Robert Taylor, Iké Udé, James VanDerZee, Maxine Walker, Carrie Mae Weems, Deborah Willis, Ernest Withers. Small 4to (25 cm.), red papered boards. First ed. HANOVER (NH). Hood Museum of Art, Dartmouth College. Surface and Depth: Trends in Contemporary Portrait Photography. 2000. Exhib. cat. Group exhibition. Included: Dawoud Bey, Carrie Mae Weems. HARTFORD (CT). Wadsworth Atheneum. Fresh Faces. June 15, 2002-January 19, 2003. Group exhibition. Included: Augusta Savage, Laura Wheeling Waring, Hughie Lee-Smith, Alan Crite, Charles White, Coreen Simpson, and Dawoud Bey. HARTFORD (CT). Wadsworth Atheneum. Snap! Photography from the Collection. 2001. Group exhibition. Included: Dawoud Bey. HITCHCOCK, BARBARA. Innovation / Imagination: 50 Years of Polaroid Photography. New York: Abrams, 1999. 120 pp., 90 color plates. Includes: Dawoud Bey, Tyrone Georgiou, Fazal Sheikh, Carrie Mae Weems. [Published to accompany the traveling exhibition at the Photo Resource Center, Boston University; Friends of Photography, San Francisco, and Ansel Adams Center for Photography.] Sq. 4to (10 x 10.5 in.), cloth, d.j. First ed. Hollander, Kurt, ed. The portable lower east side: New Africa Vol. 10, no. 1 (1993). 1993. 163 pp. Special African American issue of the cutting edge New York literary journal of new writing, poetry, cultural essays and photographs by mostly lesser-known young writers. Includes photographs by Darrel Ellis, Dawoud Bey, André Lambertson. Small 8vo, wraps. JAMAICA (NY). Jamaica Center for Arts and Learning. US/UK: Photography Exchange. July 12-September 9, 1989. Unpag. (12 pp.) exhib. cat., illus., bibliog. Curated by Kellie Jones. Text by David A. Bailey. Includes: Dawoud Bey, Rotimi Fani-Kayode, Mikki Ferrill, Ingrid Pollard, Maxine Walker. [Traveled to Camerawork, London, UK, November, 1989.] 4to (28 x 22 cm.), wraps. JONES, KELLIE. A Contemporary Portfolio: Discussions with Dawoud Bey, Albert Chong, Adger W. Cowans, Mikki Ferrill, Todd Gray, Fern Logan, Jeffrey Scales, Accra Shepp, Carrie Mae Weems, Deborah Willis. 1990. In: Exposure, Fall 1990. JONES, KELLIE, with contributions by Amiri Baraka and Hettie Jones. EyeMinded: Living and Writing Contemporary Art. Durham: Duke University Press, 2011. 528 pp., 27 illus., bibliog., index. Contents: Eyeminded: commentary by Amiri Baraka -- Preface to a twenty volume suicide note by Amiri Baraka -- A.K.A. Saartjie: The Hottentot Venus in context (some reflections and a dialogue), 1998/2004 -- Tracey Rose: postapartheid playground -- (Un)seen and overheard: pictures by Lorna Simpson -- Life's little necessities: installations by women in the 1990s -- Interview with Kcho -- The structure of myth and the potency of magic -- Seeing through: commentary by Hettie Jones -- In the eye of the beholder by Hettie Jones -- To/from Los Angeles with Betye Saar -- Crown jewels -- Dawoud Bey: portraits in the theater of desire -- Pat Ward Williams: photography and social/personal history -- Interview with Howardena Pindell -- Eye-minded: Martin Puryear -- Large as life: contemporary photography -- An interview with David Hammons -- Excuse me while I kiss the sky & then fly and touch down : commentary by Lisa Jones -- How I invented multiculturalism by Lisa Jones -- Lost in translation : Jean-Michel in the (re)mix -- In the thick of it: David Hammons and hair culture in the 1970s -- Domestic prayer -- Critical curators: interview with Kellie Jones -- Poets of a new style of speak: Cuban artists of this generation -- In their own image -- Tim Rollins and K.O.S.: what's wrong with this picture -- Blues to the future -- Them there eyes: on connections and the visual : commentary / Guthrie P. Ramsey Jr. -- Free jazz and the price of Black musical abstraction / Guthrie P. Ramsey Jr. -- To the max: energy and experimentation -- It's not enough to say "Black is beautiful" : abstraction at the Whitney 1969-1974 -- Black West: thoughts on art in Los Angeles -- Brothers and sisters -- Bill T. Jones -- Abstract expressionism : the missing link -- Norman Lewis: The Black paintings. Many other artists mentioned in context. 8vo (25 x 17 cm.), cloth, d.j. KANSAS CITY (MO). Gallery at Village Shalom, Kansas City Jewish Museum. Celebrations and Investigations: African-American Artists in Kansas City Collections. January 19-March 16, 2003. Group exhibition. Curated by James Martin, curator of the Sprint Corporate Art Collection which formed the backbone to the exhibition. Artists included: Leroy W. Allen, Radcliffe Bailey, Dawoud Bey, Nedra Bonds, Sonya Y. S. Clark, Robert H. Colescott, Henry Dixon, Arester Earl, Ed Hogan, Jonathan Knight, Kerry James Marshall, Dean Mitchell, Kori Newkirk, Lonnie Powell, Robert A. Powell, Lezley Saar, Gary Simmons, Lorna Simpson, Renee Stout, Kara Walker, Carrie Mae Weems and unattributed Sea Island baskets. Exhib. brochure text: http://artinkc.files.wordpress.com/2009/11/celebrations-and-investigations-final-essay.pdf. [Review: Theresa Bembnister, "In the Black," The Pitch (2003): http://www.pitch.com/kansascity/in-the-black/Content?oid=2168292] KELLEY, ROBIN D. G. To Make Our World Anew: A History of African Americans. Ohio University Press, 2000. 670 pp., illus. Briefest possible mention of visual artists. Romare Bearden, Jacob Lawrence, Elizabeth Catlett, Robert Colescott, Martin Puryear, David Hammons, Faith Ringgold, Adrian Piper, Dawoud Bey, Michael Ray Charles, Ellen Gallagher, Lyle Ashton Harris, Kerry James Marshall, Alison Saar, Gary Simmons, Lorna Simpson, Kara Walker, Carrie Mae Weems. 8vo (9.5 x 6.8 in.), cloth, d.j. LEEDS (UK). Dark Arches, Granary Wharf. The Appropriate Frame. 1998. Group exhibition. Included: Dawoud Bey. LINCOLN (MA). DeCordova Museum and Sculpture Park. Strokes of Genius: Mini Golf by Artists. April 1-October 22, 1995. Group exhibition. Included: Dawoud Bey. LINCOLN (NE). Sheldon Memorial Art Gallery, University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Interpreting Experience: Bey, DeCarava, VanDerZee. December 8, 2001-March 3, 2002. Three-person exhibition of 25 images. LOGAN, FERN, MARGARET R. VENDRYES and DEBORAH WILLIS. The Artist Portrait Series: Images of Contemporary African American Artists. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 2001. xviii, 122 pp., 61 b&w illus., index. Foreword by Margaret Rose Vendryes; intro. by Deborah Willis. Portrait images by photographer Fern Logan. Subjects include: Candida Alvarez, Emma Amos, Benny Andrews, Ellsworth Ausby, Romare Bearden, Dawoud Bey Camille Billops, Bob Blackburn, Vivian Browne, Selma Burke, Nanette Carter, Elizabeth Catlett, Ed Clark, Eldzier Cortor, Adger Cowans, Ernest Crichlow, Roy DeCarava, Louis Delsarte, Joseph Delaney, Melvin Edwards, Herbert Gentry, Rosa Guy, Manuel Hughes, Richard Hunt, Bill Hutson, Lois Mailou Jones, Gwendolyn Knight (as Gwendolyn Lawrence), Jacob Lawrence, Samella Lewis, James Little, Al Loving, Fern Logan, Andrew Lyght, Richard Mayhew, Arthur Mitchell, Tyrone Mitchell, Jeanne Moutoussamy-Ashe, Gordon Parks, Howardena Pindell, John Pinderhughes, Faith Ringgold, Betye Saar, Coreen Simpson, Merton Simpson, Charles Smalls, Vincent Smith, Frank Stewart, Raymond Bo Walker, Jack Whitten, William T. Williams, Mel Wright, and others. 4to (27 cm.; 10 x 8 in.), cloth, d.j. First ed. LONDON (UK). National Portrait Gallery. 20th Century Recent Acquisitions. 2001. Group exhibition. Included: Dawoud Bey. LONDON (UK). Whitechapel Art Gallery. Back to Black: Art, Cinema, and the Racial Imaginary. June 7-September 4, 2005. 200 pp. exhib. cat., 185 illus. (64 in color), bibliog. Curated by Dr. Petrine Archer-Straw, David A. Bailey, Richard J. Powell. Texts by curators and Mora Beauchamp-Byrd, Kathleen Cleaver, Manthia Diawara, Kodwo Eshun, Paul Gilroy, Kellie Jones. Artists and filmmakers (including many white film directors) on show include: Theodoros Bafaloukos (white director of "Rockers"), Ernie Barnes, Romare Bearden, Dawoud Bey, Everald Brown, Vanley Burke, fashion designer Stephen Burrows, Marcel Camus (French director of "Black Orpheus"), Elizabeth Catlett, Larry Cohen, William Crain (director of "Blacula"), Ossie Davis, Haile Gerima, Christopher Gonzalez, Guy Hamilton, David Hammons, Barkley L. Hendricks, Perry Henzell (white director of "The Harder They Come"), Gavin Jantjes, Kapo, Kofi Kayiga, Patrick Lichfield, Donald Locke, Ed Love, Edna Manley, Arthur Marks, Gilbert Moses III, Horace Ové, Joe Overstreet, Gordon Parks, Adrian Piper, Faith Ringgold, Eddie Romero, Betye Saar, Barry Shear, Peter Simon, Melvin Van Peebles, Osmond Watson, Charles White, Aubrey Williams, Llewellyn Xavier. [Traveled to: The New Art Gallery, Walsall, UK.] 4to (26 cm.), cloth. First ed. LONG ISLAND CITY (NY). P.S. 1 Contemporary Art Center. Heaven: Public View, Private View. 1997. Group exhibition. Included: Candida Alvarez, Dawoud Bey, Vaginal Davis. Los Angeles (CA). Los Angeles Center for Photographic Studies. Obscura Vol.. 2, No. 4 (1982). 1982. Special issue on Black Photography. Includes: W. R. Middlebrook, "The Work of Roy DeCarava: His Personal Perspective" (interview with DeCarava); "Personal Perspectives on the Evolution of American Black Photography: A Talk with Carrie Mae Weems"; and a portfolio of images by photographers: Jules Allen, Anthony Barboza, Dawoud Bey, M. L. Boyd, Dennis Callwood, Adger Cowans, Shirley Days, Roy DeCarava, Lou Draper, Al Fennar, Fundi, Mickey Mathis, W.R. Middlebrook, Beuford Smith, Lewis Watts, Carrie Mae Weems, Len Wilkerson. 4to, wraps. LOS ANGELES (CA). Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA). Ghosts in the Shell: Photography and the Human Soul, 1850-2000. 1999. Group exhibition. Included: Dawoud Bey. LUBECK (Germany). Galerie Linde. International Fotografie. 1999. Group exhibition. Included: Dawoud Bey. Miami (FL). The Patricia & Phillip Frost Art Museum, Florida International University. Recent Photographs from the Martin Z. Margulies Collection. January 8-February 13, 1999. Group exhibition. Curated by Dahlia Morgan. Included: Dawoud Bey. MIDDLEBURY (VT). Middlebury College Museum of Art. Screened and Selected. January 19-June 4, 2006. Group exhibition of 12 photographers. Included: Dawoud Bey. MIDDLEBURY (VT). Middlebury College Museum of Art. The Big Picture: Large Format Photography. 1999. Group exhibition. Included: Dawoud Bey. MILWAUKEE (WI). Patrick and Beatrice Haggerty Museum of Art, Marquette University. The Truth is not in the Mirror: Photography and a Constructed Identity. January 19-May 22, 2011. Group exhibition. Included: Dawoud Bey, LaToya Ruby Frazier, Mickalene Thomas. [Traveled to: University Galleries, College of Fine Art, Illinois State University, Normal, IL.] Exhibition catalogue pdf: http://www.marquette.edu/haggerty/documents/HAG_Truth_Book_09.pdf MONTCLAIR (NJ). Montclair Art Museum. Looking Forward: Gifts of Contemporary Art from the Patricia A. Bell Collection. September 22, 2013-January 15, 2014. Group exhibition. Curated by Alexandra Schwartz and Gail Stavitsky. Included: Dawoud Bey, Willie Cole, Hank Willis Thomas, Carrie Mae Weems, and Frank Whitten. MONTCLAIR (NJ). Montclair Art Museum. The Afro-American Artist in the Age of Cultural Pluralism. February 1-March 8, 1987. 24 pp. exhib. cat., 9 excellent full-page color plates, 5 b&w photos of artists by Dawoud Bey, Coreen Simpson, et al., biogs., bibliog., exhib. checklist of 21 works. Texts by Wendy McNeil and Clement Alexander Price. 7 artists included, with statements: Emma Amos, Camille Billops, Melvin Edwards, Sam Gilliam, Al Loving, Howardena Pindell, and Betye Saar. Sq. 8vo (10 x 9 in.; 25 cm.), stapled pictorial wraps. First ed. NASHVILLE (TN). Frist Center for the Visual Arts. Illusion of Innocence. September 24, 2004-January 2, 2005. Group exhibition of photography. Included: Dawoud Bey. NEW HAVEN (CT). Creative Arts Workshop. Fact/Fiction. Thru June 25, 2004. Group exhibition of 58 works by 25 photographers. Juried by Dawoud Bey. Includes Kerry Stuart Coppin, Wardell Milan, II. NEW HAVEN (CT). Yale University Art Gallery. The Persistence of Photography in American Portraiture. 2000. Group exhibition. Included: Dawoud Bey, Whitfield Lovell. NEW HAVEN (CT). Yale University Art Gallery. Then and Now and Later: Art Since 1945 at Yale. May 19-July 26, 1998. Group exhibition of new work by 13 artists. Included: Dawoud Bey and Byron Kim. NEW YORK (NY). Bellevue Hospital Center Atrium. Images of Color 2008 - New York. February 19-March 6, 2008. An Exhibition in Celebration of Black History Month. Works from the New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation's Art Collection. Included: Emma Amos, Benny Andrews, Romare Bearden, Dawoud Bey, Ramona Candy, Stephanie Chisholm, Eva Cockroft, Eldzier Cortor, Masha Froliak, Sam Gilliam, David Hammons, D. Lammie-Hanson, Alex Harsley, William Howard, Richard Hunt, Jacob Lawrence, Norman Lewis, Richard Mayhew, Otto Neals, Ademola Olugebefola, Valerie Phillips, Gina Samson, Alfred J. Smith, Vincent Smith, James VanDerZee, Charles White, Emmett Wigglesworth, John Wilson, and Wendy Wilson. NEW YORK (NY). Bellevue Hospital Center Atrium. New York City: In Focus. October 9-November 21, 2008. Group exhibition of New York based photographers, as well as, emerging photographers with subjects focusing on different aspects of iconic imagery from NYC: architecture, landscape, culture and people. Included: Pamela Allen, Dawoud Bey, Wayne Clarke, D. Lammie Hanson, Alex Harsley, Leroy Henderson, Charlie Martin, Valerie Phillips, Ming Smith, James Vanderzee. NEW YORK (NY). Buhl Collection Gallery. Hands of our Doing: An Exhibition of Photographs from the Buhl Collection. 1999. Group exhibition. Included: Dawoud Bey and Gordon Parks. NEW YORK (NY). Center for Architecture. City Art: New York's Percent for Art Program. 2005. 240 pp., color illus. Foreword by Michael Bloomberg; intro. by Adam Gopnik; text by Eleanor Heartney; specially commissioned photographs by David S. Allee. Features 200 works by almost as many artists. Included: Maren Hassinger, Dawoud Bey, et al. A complete record of the public art installations sponsored by New York City's Percent for Art Program since 1983. 4to (10.8 x 9 in.), wraps. NEW YORK (NY). David Beizel Gallery. Knowing Children. 1998. Group exhibition. Included: Dawoud Bey. NEW YORK (NY). Franklin Furnace. The Flue Vol. 2, no. 1 (1982). New York: Franklin Furnace Archive, [1982. 32 pp., b&w illus. Deborah Drier, ed. Includes: artists pages by David Hammons and Dawoud Bey. 4to (28 x 21.6 cm.), offset-printed, stapled pictorial wraps. NEW YORK (NY). International Center of Photography and Seattle Art Museum, Seattle. Only Skin Deep: Changing Visions of the American Self. New York: ICP and Abrams, 2003. 416 pp. exhib. cat., illus. Curated by Coco Fusco and Brian Wallis. Exhibition of 77 photographers. Includes: Dawoud Bey, Kerry Stuart Coppin, Maria Magdalena Campos-Pons, Renée Cox, Roy DeCarava, Rico Gatson, Mark S. Greenfield, Lyle Ashton Harris, Chester Higgins, Jr., Rashid Johnson, Isaac Julien, Glenn Ligon, Wangechi Mutu, Kori Newkirk, Maria de Mater O'Neill, Gordon Parks, Adrian Piper, Lorna Simpson, James Vanderzee, Carrie Mae Weems, Fred Wilson. 4to (10.3 x 7.8 in.), cloth, d.j. NEW YORK (NY). James Graham and Sons. Portraits. 1996. Group exhibition. Included: Dawoud Bey, Lyle Ashton Harris. NEW YORK (NY). John Jay College of Criminal Justice Art,. Envisioning the World: Works from En Focos Print Collectors Program. August 28-September 22, 2006. 20 contemporary photographers. Includes: Dawoud Bey, Kerry Stuart Coppin, Gerald Cyrus, Lauri Lyons, Juan Sanchez, Beuford Smith, Carrie Mae Weems. Exhibition of photographs that focus on identity, a sense of place, longing - from documentary to mixed media. NEW YORK (NY). Just Above Midtown/Downtown Gallery. Outlaw Aesthetics. June 5-July 19, 1980. Group exhibition. Included: Dawoud Bey (performance), Willie Birch, Maren Hassinger, Cynthia Hawkins, Lorraine O'Grady (performance of "Mlle Bourgeoise Noire"), et al. NEW YORK (NY). Kenkeleba House. Affirmations of Life: The Opposite of a Nuclear Nightmare. April-May, 1984. Group exhibition. Curated by Al Loving. Includes: Emma Amos, Dawoud Bey, McArthur Binion, Willie Birch, Fern Logan, Whitfield Lovell, Al Loving, Tyrone Mitchell, Charles Searles, Coreen Simpson, Kathleen Spicer, Linda Whitaker, Michael Kelly Williams, et al. NEW YORK (NY). Louis Abrons Arts Center, Henry Street Settlement. On the Edge: Contemporary Photographs of Manhattan's Perimeter. 1991. Group exhibition. Included: Jules Allen, Dawoud Bey. NEW YORK (NY). Midtown Y Photography Gallery. Dawoud Bey / Vivian T.R. Barry. November-December, 1986. Two-person exhibition. NEW YORK (NY). National Academy of Design. High Times, Hard Times: New York Painting 1967-1975. Independent Curators, 2006. 176 pp. exhib. cat., color illus., b&w photographs, timeline, bibliog. Curated by Katy Siegel. An exhibition of 42 fairly randomly selected paintings by 38 New York artists. Four African American abstract artists (Al Loving, Joe Overstreet, Howardena Pindell and Jack Whitten) are included, along with a brief text by Dawoud Bey devoted mostly to the political activism of the period and exclusionary practices of white museums, but also mentioning the hostility to abstraction in Black art circles of the time. Pindell and Whitten each wrote a 1-page artist's statement. Siegel's summarizing text barely mentions and unnecessarily isolates Black artists from the broader topics she addresses. [Traveled to: Weatherspoon Art Museum, Greensboro, NC, August 6-October 15, 2006; American University, Washington, DC, November 21, 2006-January 21, 2007; and National Academy Museum, New York, February 13-April 22, 2007.] 8vo, self-wraps. First ed. NEW YORK (NY). New York Public Library. Eight Million Stories: 20th-Century New York Life in Prints and Photographs from the New York Public Library. 1998. Group exhibition. Included: Dawoud Bey, et al. NEW YORK (NY). New York University, Photo Center Art Gallery. Photographs & Diaries. February 3-March 18, 1990. Group exhibition. Included: Dawoud Bey, Clarissa T. Sligh, Pat Ward Williams. NEW YORK (NY). New York Urban League / Lever House. 35 under 35. August 4-21, 1980. 22 (2) pp., 36 b&w illus. Intro. by Romare Bearden. Curated by Avel de Knight. A mix of painting, photography, sculpture, graphics, with a broad selection extending well beyond the New York area; numerous women artists. Includes 22 African American artists and also artists of Native American, Chicano and Hispanic descent. Includes among others: Jules T. Allen, Toyce Anderson, Dawoud Bey, Niles Cruz, Louis J. Delsarte, Stephanie Douglas, Barkley L. Hendricks, Jaqui Holmes, Claudia Jane Hutchinson, Harold Lambert, Leonard Mainor, Howard McCalebb, Algernon Miller, Charles Mingus, III, Candace Hill-Montgomery, Marilyn Nance, Enock Placide, Richard J. Powell, Milton Sherrill, Leon Waller, E. Lee White, Randy Williams. 12mo (22 cm), tan stapled wraps. First ed. NEW YORK (NY). Paine Webber Art Gallery. Revealing the Self: Portraits by Twelve Contemporary Artists. November 12-December 31, 1992. Group exhibition. Curated by Grace Stanislaus. Included: Dawoud Bey, Lorraine O'Grady, Juan Sanchez, Coreen Simpson, Danny Tisdale, and others. NEW YORK (NY). Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture. Black New York Photographers of the Twentieth Century: Selections from the Schomburg Center Collections. May 19-September 30, 1999. 76 pp., 56 full-page b&w illus., 1 text illus., checklist with brief biographies of all photographers. Intro. Mary F. Yearwood. Includes: Salimah Ali, James L. Allen, Jules Allen, Vance Allen, Bert Andrews, Anthony Barboza, Cornelius M. Battey, Dawoud Bey, Terry E. Boddie, Anthony Bonair, Kwame Brathwaite, Ron Campbell, Doughba Hamilton Caranda-Martin, Wayne Clarke, Gerald Cyrus, Isaac Diggs, Martin Dixon, Sulaiman Ellison, Lavell (Khepera Ausar) Finerson, Collette V. Fournier, Gerard H. Gaskin, Austin Hansen, Inge Hardison, Joe Harris, Gerald E. Hayes, Tahir Hemphill, Leroy W. Henderson, Heru (Art Harrison), Chester Higgins, Cecil Layne, Steve J. Martin, Frantz Michaud, Cheryl Miller, Marilyn Nance, Gordon Parks, Moira Pernambuco, Edgar E. Phipps, Juanita M. Prince-Cole, Orville Robertson, Eli Reed, Richard Saunders, Coreen Simpson, Moneta Sleet, Jr., Beuford Smith, Klytus Smith, Ming Smith, Morgan and Marvin Smith, Chuck Stewart, Frank Stewart, James Vanderzee, Shawn W. Walker, Budd Williams. 4to, pictorial wraps. First ed. NEW YORK (NY). Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture. Recent Acquisitions of the Schomburg Collection. June 15-July 23, 1982. (8 pp.) exhib. brochure, Romare Bearden cover illus., brief biogs. of all artists. Group exhibition. Included: Jules Allen, Charles Alston, Emma Amos, Anthony Barboza, Romare Bearden, Dawoud Bey, Samuel Ellis Blount, Vivian Browne, Edward Clark, Ernest Crichlow, Beauford Delaney, Aaron Douglas, Tom Feelings, Herbert Genry, Adrienne Hoard, Jacob Lawrence, Hughie Lee-Smith, Norman Lewis, Jeanne Moutoussamy-Ashe, Ademola Olugebefola, Robert Pious, Horace Pippin, Coreen Simpson, Vincent Smith, Frank Stewart, Bill Traylor, William T. Williams. 12mo, single tan double-folded sheet (11 x 17 in.), printed on both sides. NEW YORK (NY). Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture. Who's Uptown: Harlem '87. March 11-April 16, 1988. 56 pp., 43 full-page illus. (9 in color), checklist of 76 works, directory of 42 artists; more than half of the photos are by Dawoud Bey. Foreword Howard Dodson; intro. and curated by Deirdre Bibby. (Also issued in a limited edition of 100 copies, signed on the limitation page by thirty-seven of the exhibiting artists.) Artists in the exhibition included: O'Neal Abel, Aubu M.A.O., Charles Burwell, Nanette Carter, Schroeder Cherry, James Conner, Houston Conwill, Michael A. Cummings, Pat Davis, Sandra Epps, Franco, David Hammons, Maren Hassinger, Joe Harris, Gaylord Hassan, Candace Hill, Al Hollingsworth, Claudia J. Hirst, Walter C. Jackson, Whitfield Lovell, Carolyn Maitland, Dindga McCannon, Algernon Miller, Tyrone Mitchell, Mark Keith Morse, Hakim Mutlaq; Nii Ahene (La) Mettle, Ademola Olugebefola, Patricia Phipps, Brian Pinkney, Debra Priestly, Okoe (Ronald) Pyatt, Faith Ringgold, Jeffrey Scales, Ed Sherman, Kaylynn Sullivan, Tesfaye Tessema, Lloyd Toone, Shawn Walker, Grace Williams, Hugh Williams, Tehran Wilson. Oblong 4to, pictorial stapled wraps. Ed. of 3000 copies. NEW YORK (NY). Studio Museum in Harlem. African Queen. January 26-March 27, 2005. Group exhibition focusing on images of black women. Over 50 works in various media by 30 contemporary artists. Curated by Rashida Bumbray, Ali Evans, Sandra D. Jackson and Christine Y. Kim. Includes (among others): John Bankston, Dawoud Bey, Mark Bradford, Chakaia Booker, Renée Cox, Rico Gatson, Lyle Ashton Harris, Barkley Hendricks, Deana Lawson, Kalup Linzy's "All My Churen," Adia Millett, Nzingah Muhammad, Wangechi Mutu, Kori Newkirk, J.D. 'Okhai Ojeikere, Nadine Robinson, Tracey Rose, Rudy Shepherd, Malick Sidibé, Lorna Simpson, Xaviera Simmons, Shinique Smith, Mickalene Thomas, Fatimah Tuggar, Ike Udé, James VanderZee, Francesco Vezzou, Kara Walker, Carrie Mae Weems, Deborah Willis. NEW YORK (NY). Studio Museum in Harlem. Collection in Context. January 23-March 31, 2001. Group exhibition. Included: Dawoud Bey, Arnold J. Kemp, Kerry James Marshall, Odili Donald Odita, J.D. 'Okhai Ojeikere, Gordon Parks, Malick Sidibé, Carrie Mae Weems. NEW YORK (NY). Studio Museum in Harlem. Home: Contemporary Urban Images by Black Photographers. September 16-December 30, 1990. 26 pp., 12 full-page b&w photographic plates, checklist of 89 works, artists' profiles. Text by Sharon F. Patton. Ten photographers included: Jules Allen, Dawoud Bey, Dennis Olanzo Callwood, Earlie Hudnall, Jr., Brent Jones, Marilyn Nance, John Pinderhughes, Jeffrey Scales, Lewis Watts, Carrie Mae Weems and Pat Ward Williams. 4to (28 cm.), pictorial wraps. First ed. NEW YORK (NY). Studio Museum in Harlem. hrlm: pictures. July 20-October 23, 2005. Group exhibition of more than 50 photographs by 31 artists (not all of African descent). Curated by Rashida Bumbray, Ali Evans and Christine Y. Kim. Artists in the exhibition included: Jules Allen, Alice Attie, damali ayo, Randal Wilcox, Dawoud Bey, Terry E. Boddie, Jonathan Calm, Christine Camila, Karen Davis, h. eugene foster, Adler Guerrier, Eric Henderson, Mikki K. Harris, Leslie Hewitt, Brooke Jacobs, Robert W. Johnson, Ray A. Llanos, Melinda Lewis, Dave McKenzie, Gordon Parks, Carlos Perez, Katherin Schmidiger, Greg Tate, Constance Williams, and James VanDerZee. NEW YORK (NY). Studio Museum in Harlem. Red, Black, and Green. July 12-September 16, 2001. Group exhibition. Curated by Thelma Golden. Included: Benny Andrews, Dawoud Bey, Chakaia Booker, Ed Clark, Gregory Coates, Deborah Grant, David Hammons, Jacob Lawrence, Glenn Ligon, Sister Gertrude Morgan, Tim Rollins & K.O.S., Lorna Simpson, James Vanderzee, Kara Walker, et al. [Review: Holland Cotter, "Invoking Marcus Garvey While Looking Ahead," NYT, August 24, 2001.] NEW YORK (NY). Studio Museum in Harlem. Self-Portrait. March 26-April 27, 1980. Unpag. (16 pp.) exhib. cat., 9 illus. (1 in color), biogs. Includes 50 self-portrait photographs by 32 photographers. Pref. by Mary Schmidt Campbell; texts by Patricia Mornan Bell and Richard Muhlberger. Group exhibition includes: Salimah Ali, Jules Allen, Anthony Barboza, Hugh Bell, Dawoud Bey, Michael Britto, Adger W. Cowans, Pat Davis, Daniel Dawson, Mel Dixon, Al Fennar, Bob Fletcher, Roland Freeman, Vince Frye, Al Green, Gail Hansberry, Leroy Henderson, John Burke Horne, Roy Lewis, Fern Logan, Jeanne Moutoussamy, Marilyn Nance, Larry Neilson, Gordon Parks, John Pinderhughes, Coreen Simpson, Beuford Smith, Ming Smith, Chuck Stewart, James Vanderzee, E. Lee White, and Leroy Woodson. [Traveled to: Springfield Museum of Fine Arts, Springfield, MA, August 17-October 5, 1980.] Sq. 8vo (20 x 20 cm), stapled wraps. First ed. NEW YORK (NY). Studio Museum in Harlem. Who, What, Wear: Selections from the Permanent Collection. November 10, 2011-May 27, 2012. Group exhibition. Focus on evolutions in style - self-expression, fashion, artistic technique and societal ideals of beauty. Included: Dawoud Bey, Seydou Keita, Malick Sidibé, Hank Willis Thomas, James Vanderzee, Kehinde Wiley, et al. NEW YORK (NY). Von Lintel Gallery. Sweet Sweetbacks Baadasssss Song. November 29, 2007-January 20, 2008. Group exhibition of fourteen artists. Curated by Collette Blanchard. Includes photography, drawings, paintings, video and installation. Artists: Dawoud Bey, Radcliffe Bailey, Michael Paul Britto, iona rozeal brown, Zoë Charlton, Renée Cox, Barkley Hendricks, Titus Kaphar, Lawrence Lee, Robert Pruitt, Ifétayo Abdus-Salam, Mickalene Thomas, Hank Willis Thomas, Carrie Mae-Weems. [Review: R.C. Baker, The Village Voice, March 13, 2007; T.J. Carlin, Time Out New York, January 10-16, 2008:72.] NEW YORK (NY). Whitney Museum of American Art. 2000 Biennial. March 23-June 4, 2000. 272 pp., 250 illus., 141 in color, biog., bibliog., and exhibs. for each artist. Texts by William L. Anderson, Michael G. Auping, Valerie Cassel, Hugh M. Davies, Jane Farver, Andrea Miller-Keller, Lawrence R. Rinder. Includes: Dawoud Bey, Chakaia Booker, Thornton Dial, Kojo Griffin, Trenton Doyle Hancock, Arthur Jafa, Paul Pfeiffer, Carl Pope, Yvonne Welbon. [Review: Jerry Saltz, "My Sixth Sense, " Village Voice, March 29-April 4, 2000.] 4to (10.5 x 9 in.), pictorial stiff wraps. First ed. NEW YORK (NY). Whitney Museum of American Art. 2014 Biennial. March 7-May 25, 2014. Group exhibition. Includes: Terry Adkins, Kevin Beasley, Dawoud Bey, David Hammons (part of collaboration), Tony Lewis, Dave McKenzie, My Barbarian, Taisha Paggett, Jacolby Satterwhite, the YAMS Collective. This Biennial is notable for the scant number of African American artists and at the same time the inclusion of the work of a white male artist Joe Scanlan whose work is exhibited as the product of black woman artist "Donelle Woolford" - a fictitious creation. Scanlan hires numerous black female actors to play the role of the fictional emerging New York artist "Donelle Woolford" at openings and associated performance events. In response to the inclusion of this overtly racist work, the YAMS Collective withdrew their film from participation. [For details on the Donelle Woolford controversey, read 2010 interview with Scanlan by Jeremy Sigler in BOMB Magazine [http://bombsite.com/issues/999/articles/3580]; Andrew Russeth, "There's Something Funny About Donelle Woolford," New York Observer, March 3, 2014 [http://observer.com/2014/03/theres-something-funny-about-donelle-woolford/]; Coco Fusco, "One Step Forward, Two Steps Back: Thoughts about the Donelle Woolford Debate,"The Brooklyn Rail, May 2014 [http://brooklynrail.org/2014/05/art/one-step-forward-two-steps-back-thoughts-about-the-donelle-woolford-debate/]; Carolina A. Miranda, "Art and race at the Whitney: Rethinking the Donelle Woolford debate," Los Angeles Times, June 9, 2014 ]http://www.latimes.com/entertainment/arts/miranda/la-et-cam-donelle-woolford-controversy-whitney-biennial-20140609-column.html#page=1]; NEW YORK (NY). Whitney Museum of American Art. Heart, Mind, Body, Soul: American Art in the 1990s, Selections from the Permanent Collection. December 3-, 1997. Group exhibition curated by Thelma Golden. Included: Dawoud Bey, Nayland Blake, Glenn Ligon, Kerry James Marshall, Gary Simmons, Lorna Simpson, Fred Wilson, et al. NEW YORK (NY). Whitney Museum of American Art. Inside Out: Portrait Photographs from the Permanent Collection. April 4-May 4, 2004. Group exhibition. Included: Dawoud Bey, Rashid Johnson. NEW YORK (NY). Whitney Museum of American Art. What?s New: Recent Acquisitions in Photography. 2000. Group exhibition. Included: Dawoud Bey. NEW YORK (NY). Whitney Museum of American Art at Phillip Morris. Photographs: Selections from the Permanent Collection. 1994. Group exhibition. Included: Dawoud Bey, et al. NEW YORK (NY). Wilmer Jennings Gallery at Kenkeleba House. Reflections of Monk: Inspired Images of Music and Moods. October 10-December 8, 2012. Group exhibition. Curated by Edward Sherman. Included: Virginia Bagwell, Che Baraka, Romare Bearden, Dawoud Bey, Betty Blayton, Kwame Brathwaite, Danny Broadway, S. Ross Browne, Roy DeCarava, Louis Delsarte, James Denmark, James Edmonds, Essud Fungcap, Paul T. Goodnight, Charlene Gumbs, Verna Hart, Leon Hicks, Jimi Jones, Charlotte Ka, Valerie Maynard, Gloria Aziza Lawyer, Dindga McCannon, Karl McIntosh, Otto Neals, Ademola Olugebefola, Joe Overstreet, Okoe Pyatt, Samson, Harold Smith, Chuck Stewart, TAFA, Ann Tanksley, Dinizulu Gene Tinnie, Emmett Wigglesworth, Michael Kelly Williams, Frank Wimberley, et al. NEW YORK (NY). Yancey Richardson Gallery. About Face. June 10-August 23, 2002. Group exhibition of 9 artists. Included: Dawoud Bey. NEWARK (NJ). Aljira, A Center for Contemporary Art. En Foco/In Focus: Selected Works from the Permanent Collection at Aljira. June 7-August 18, 2012. Group exhibition. Included: Dawoud Bey, Terry Boddie, Samantha Box, Gerald Cyrus, Lola Flash, Stephen Marc, Juan Sanchez, Hank Willis Thomas, Wendel A. White. NEWARK (NJ). Newark Museum. Unbounded: New Art for a New Century. February 11-August 16, 2009. Group exhibition. Co-curated by four of the museum's curators Christa Clarke, Katherine Ann Paul, Ulysses Grant Dietz, Beth Venn. Artists included: Sandy Benjamin-Hannibal, Dawoud Bey, Willie Cole, Sokey Edorh, Victor Ekpuk, Samuel Fosso, Wosene Worke Kosrof, Senzeni Marasela, Magdalene Odundo, Kwesi Owusu-Ankomah, Martin Puryear, Yinka Shonibare MBE, Lorna Simpson. NORTH MIAMI (FL). Museum of Contemporary Art. Pivot Points 3. September 25-November 8, 2009. Group exhibition of selected works from the permanent collection. Curated by Bonnie Clearwater. Included: Dawoud Bey, Adler Guerrier, and Hank Willis Thomas. OKPEWHO, ISIDORE, CAROLE BOYCE DAVIES, Ali A. Mazrui, eds. The African Diaspora: African origins and New World identities. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1999. xxviii, 566 pp., illus., index of names. Over 40 visual artists mentioned in passing; only Basquiat is singled out for detailed and extensive individual consideration by Andrea Frohne. Selected texts, each with individual notes and bibliographies, including: "Cultural reconfigurations in the African Caribbean" by Maureen Warner-Lewis; "Modernity, memory, Martinique" by Richard Price; "Images of Africa and the Haiti revolution in American and Brazilian abolitionism" by Celia M. Azevedo; "The centrality of margins: art, gender, and African American creativity" by Sally Price; "Horned ancestral masks, Shakespearean actor boys, and Scotch-inspired set girls: social relations in nineteenth-century Jamaican Jonkonnu" by Sandra L. Richards; "From folklore to literature: the route from roots in the African world" by Oyekan Owomoyela; "Blackness as a process of creolization: the Afro-Esmeraldian Décimas (Ecuador)" by Jean Rahier; "Islam and the black diaspora: the impact of Islamigration" by Ali A. Mazrui; "The concept of modernity in contemporary African art" by Nkiru Nzegwu; "Habits of attention: persistence of Lan Ginée in Haiti" by LeGrace Benson; "Representing Jean-Michel Basquiat" by Andrea Frohne; "Optic black: implied texts and the colors of photography" by Charles Martin; "Caribbean cinema, or cinema in the Caribbean?" by Keith Q. Warner. 8vo (24 cm.), cloth. OVERLAND PARK (KS). Johnson County Community College Gallery of Art. Portraits: Dawoud Bey, Wendy Ewald. 1997. Two-person exhibition. PARIS (France). Galerie du Jour. Un couteau. 1990. 138 pp. exhib. cat., illus. Based on an idea by Agnes b: a knife and a photograph conceived by the photographer. Included: Dawoud Bey. Text in French. 8vo (9.25 x 8.5 in.), card wraps. PATTON, SHARON F. African American Art. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. 319 pp., illus. throughout in color and b&w, notes, list of illus., timeline, index. Excellent new survey covering approximately 108 artists from Scipio Moorhead to Dawoud Bey, including 22 women artists: Charles Alston, Emma Amos, Benny Andrews, Malcolm Bailey, James Presley Ball, Henry (Mike) Bannarn, Edward Bannister, Dutreuil Barjon, Jean-Michel Basquiat, Romare Bearden, Peter Bentzon, Dawoud Bey, Bob Blackburn, Grafton Tyler Brown, Vivian E. Browne, Jacob (Jacoba) Bunel, Elizabeth Catlett, Dana Chandler, Ed Clark, Barbara Chase-Riboud, Houston Conwill, Eldzier Cortor, Ernest Crichlow, Dave (the Potter), Thomas Day, Beauford Delaney, Jean-Louis Dolliole, Jeff Donaldson, Aaron Douglas, Robert M. Douglass, Robert S. Duncanson, William Edmondson, Melvin Edwards, Minnie Evans. Frederick J. Eversley, John Frances, Meta Fuller, Reginald Gammon, Herbert Gentry, Sam Gilliam, Célestin Glapion, Thomas Goss, Jr., Henry Gudgell, David Hammons, James Hampton, Maren Hassinger, Palmer Hayden, Alvin C. Hollingsworth, Richard Hunt, Bill Hutson, Clifford L. Jackson, May Howard Jackson, Martha Jackson-Jarvis, Oliver Jackson, Wadsworth A. Jarrell, Daniel Larue Johnson, Malvin Gray Johnson, Sargent Johnson, William H. Johnson, Joshua Johnston, Ben Jones, Jacob Lawrence, Hughie Lee-Smith, Edmonia Lewis, Norman Lewis, Jules Lion, Tom Lloyd, Al Loving, Richard Mayhew, Sam Middleton, Scipio Moorhead, Keith Morrison, Archibald Motley, Ademola Olugebefola, Mary Lovelace O'Neal, Howardena Pindell, Adrian Piper, Rose Piper, Horace Pippin, Harriet Powers, Noah Purifoy, Martin Puryear, Patrick Reason, Faith Ringgold, Jean Rousseau, Alison Saar, Betye Saar, Raymond Saunders, Augusta Savage, Addison Scurlock, Lorna Simpson, Merton D. Simpson, Vincent D. Smith, Thelma Streat, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Alma Thomas, Bob Thompson, Dox Thrash, James Vanderzee, Christian Walker, William W. Walker, Eugene Warburg, Charles White, Pat Ward Williams, Walter J. Williams, Hale Woodruff. 4to, cloth, d.j. First ed PHILADELPHIA (PA). African American Museum in Philadelphia. As We See It: Selected Works from the Petrucci Family Foundation Collection of African American Art. February 5-March 21, 2015. Group exhibition of an important mostly mid-Atlantic collection. Curated by Berrisford Boothe. Included: William E. Artis, Edward M. Bannister, Dawoud Bey, Camille Billops, Berrisford Boothe, James Brantley, Moe Brooker, Barbara Bullock, Margaret Burroughs, Charles Burwell, Donald E. Camp, Elizabeth Catlett, Kevin Cole, Allan Rohan Crite, James Dupree, David C. Driskell, Allan Edmunds, Sam Gilliam, Curlee Holton, Ed Hughes, Martina Johnson-Allen, Paul Keene, Beni E. Kosh, Deryl Mackie, Richard Mayhew, Sam Middleton, Charles Sallee, Sterling Shaw, Mei Tei-Sing Smith, Louis Sloan, Nelson Stevens, Charles Searles, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Dox Thrash, Richard J. Watson. PHILADELPHIA (PA). Philadelphia Museum of Art. Represent: 200 Years of African American Art. January 10-April 5, 2015. 224 pp. exhib. cat, color illus. Intro. Richard J. Powell, thematic essays by Gwendolyn DuBois Shaw. Highlights over 150 objects in the museum's collection, whereas the exhibition packed into an overly small room included only 75 works by a meager 50 artists, including: Moses Williams, Dawoud Bey, Moe Brooker, Samuel J. Brown, Donald Camp, Elizabeth Catlett, Roy DeCarava, Beauford Delaney, Aaron Douglas, John Dowell, Jr., David Drake (Dave the Potter), Sam Gilliam, Barkley L. Hendricks, Peter Hill, William H. Johnson, Jacob Lawrence, Glenn Ligon, Odili Donald Odita, Barbara Chase-Riboud, Gordon Parks, Jerry Pinkney, Horace Pippin, Martin Puryear, Faith Ringgold, Alison Saar, Joyce J. Scott, Lorna Simpson, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Alma Thomas, Bob Thompson, Dox Thrash, Bill Traylor, James Vanderzee, Kara Walker, Carrie Mae Weems, and John Wilson. [Review: Philip Kennicott, The Washington Post, January 14, 2015;] 4to (12.2 x 9.8 in.), cloth, d.j. First ed. PITTSBURGH (PA). Silver Eye Center for Photography. New Portraits: Dawoud Bey and Judith Black. 1995. Exhib. cat., illus. Two-person exhibition. POWELL, RICHARD. African American Art. 2005. Entry in AFRICANA: The Encyclopeida of the African and African American Experience (Ed. Henry Louis Gates Jr. and Kwame Anthony Appiah. Oxford University Press; April 2005.) Includes mention of: Scipio Moorhead, Joshua Johnson, Patrick Reason, William Simpson, Robert Douglass, Daniel and Eugene Warburg, Edmonia Lewis, Robert S. Duncanson, Edward M. Bannister, William Harper, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Harriet Powers, Edwin A. Harleston, Isaac Scott Hathaway, May Howard Jackson, John Henry Adams, Jr., Meta Warrick Fuller, Palmer C. Hayden, Malvin Gray Johnson, Laura Wheeler Waring, Richmond Barthé, Sargent Johnson, Augusta Savage, Archibald J. Motley, Jr., Allan Rohan Crite, Ernest Crichlow, Dox Thrash, William Edmondson, Jacob Lawrence, Horace Pippin, William H. Johnson, Charles Sebree, Eldzier Cortor, Hughie-Lee Smith, Charles White, Minnie Evans, James Hampton, Bob Thompson, Romare Bearden, Murry N. DePillars, Ben Jones, Dana Chandler, Jeff Donaldson, Lois Mailou Jones, John T. Biggers, Elizabeth Catlett, Frank Bowling, Sam Gilliam, Richard Hunt, Barbara Chase-Riboud, Raymond Saunders, Alma Thomas, Al Loving, Ed Clark, Joe Overstreet, Jack Whitten, William T. Williams, Clementine Hunter, Sister Gertrude Morgan, Barkley L. Hendricks, Ernie Barnes, Benny Andrews, Betye Saar, (David Driskell, Samella Lewis and Ruth Waddy - as curators), David Hammons, Robert Colescott, Houston Conwill, Alison Saar, Renée Stout, Albert Chong, Lyle Ashton Harris, Jean-Michel Basquiat, Glenn Ligon, Lorna Simpson, Dawoud Bey, Renée Cox, Lorraine O'Grady, Kerry James Marshall, Howardena Pindell, Gary Simmons, Kara Walker, and Fred Wilson. POWELL, RICHARD J. Black Art and Culture in the 20th Century. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1997. 256 pp., 176 illus. (including 31 in color), biog. notes, list of illus., bibliog. 8vo, cloth, d.j. First ed. POWELL, RICHARD J. Black Art: A Cultural History. London: Thames & Hudson, 2002. 272 pp., 192 illus. including 39 in color, biog. notes, list of illus., index. Revised and slightly enlarged from 1997 edition. 8vo, wraps. Second Revised ed. POWELL, RICHARD J. Cutting a Figure: Fashioning Black Portraiture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008. 292 pp., 116 illus. (43 in color), notes, bibliog., index. Substantial chapter devoted to Barkley L. Hendricks; discussion of the self-portrait photographs of Lyle Ashton Harris and Renée Cox; extensive discussion of African American fashion model Donyale Luna, and brief mention of nearly 70 other African and African American artists. 8vo (25 x 23 cm.), cloth, d.j. First ed. RANKIN, TOM. Local Heroes: Changing America. 2000. 285 pp. Foreword by Ray Suarez. Photos by Dawoud Bey and Eli Reed. Focuses on stories about real people in neighborhoods where people are taking risks and overcoming social, personal, and economic differences to improve their local environment and transform their own lives. [CD contains the testimony in the "hero's own voice. 8vo, cloth, d.j., plus bound-in cd. First ed. ROCKFORD (IL). Rockford Art Museum. The Human Touch: Selections from the RBC Dain Rauscher Art Collection. October 20, 2006-January 7, 2007. Group exhibition of 12 artists. Curated by Don McNeill. Included: Radcliffe Bailey, José Bedia, Dawoud Bey, Kerry James Marshall, Kehinde Wiley, Carrie Mae Weems. All works loaned by RBC Wealth Management. [Traveled to: Rochester Art Center, Rochester, MN, 2007; Redline Gallery, Denver, CO, October 18-December 23, 2013.] SAN DIEGO (CA). University Art Gallery, San Diego State University. Composite Persona. 1997. Group exhibition. Included Dawoud Bey, Lorraine O'Grady. [Traveled to Fullerton Museum Art Gallery, Fullerton, CA.] SAN FRANCISCO (CA). Jewish Museum of San Francisco. The Jewish Identity Project. October 22, 2006-April 29, 2007. 215 pp. exhib. cat., illus. Group exhibition of 12 emerging and mid-career artists; interviews with artists by Joanna Lindenbaum; texts by Susan Chevlowe and Ilan Stavans. Included: Dawoud Bey. 4to (11.5 x 10.1 in.), wraps. SAN FRANCISCO (CA). Museum of the African Diaspora. Portraits and Other Likenesses from SFMOMA. May 8-October 11, 2015. Included: Njideka Akunyili, Dawoud Bey, Nick Cave, Glenn Ligon, SAN FRANCISCO (CA). Rena Bransten Gallery. Paper Cuts. 2000. Group exhibition. Included: Dawoud Bey. SCOTTSDALE (AZ). Museum of Contemporary Art. HairStories. October 3, 2003-January 4, 2004. 64 pp., 24 color plates, 2 b&w historical photos, biogs., exhib. Checklist, bibliog. Texts by Kim Curry-Evans, Dr. Neal A. Lester. Includes: Emma Amos, Benny Andrews, Radcliffe Bailey, Dawoud Bey, Milton Bowens, Mark Bradford, Sonya Clark, Tina Dunkley, Bill Gaskins, Kojo Griffin, David Hammons, Barkley L. Hendricks, Jacob Lawrence, Cathleen Lewis, Stephen Marc, Kerry James Marshall, Beverly McIver, Kori Newkirk, Gordon Parks, Nadine Robinson, Alison Saar, Lorna Simpson, Joe Willie Smith, James Vanderzee, Cynthia Wiggins, Kehinde Wiley, Deborah Willis. [Traveled to: Clark Atlanta University Galleries, Atlanta, GA, February 1-April 10, 2004; Chicago Cultural Center, Chicago, IL, May 4-July 3, 2004; Museum of the African Diaspora, San Francisco, CA, January-March, 2005; Contemporary Arts Center, New Orleans, LA April 16-June 19, 2005; Forty Acres Art Gallery, Sacramento, CA, June-August, 2005; Crocker Art Museum, Sacramento, CA, July 9-September 11, 2005.] 4to, wraps. First ed. SOUTHAMPTON (NY). Parrish Art Museum. An American Legacy: Art from the Studio Museum. March 23-June 1, 2003. Group exhibition of 85 works Curated by Thelma Golden. Included: James Vanderzee, Terry Adkins, Charles Alston, Dawoud Bey, Willie Cole, Beauford Delaney, Melvin Edwards, David Hammons, Norman Lewis, Glenn Ligon, Al Loving, Kerry James Marshall, Sam Middleton, Wangechi Mutu, Odili Donald Odita, Martin Puryear, Betye Saar, Alma Thomas, Kara Walker, Nari Ward, Jack Whitten, et al. [Review: Helen A. Harrison "Out of Harlem Comes a Vibrant Chronicle," NYT, April 27, 2003.] SOUTHAMPTON (NY). Parrish Art Museum. As American As: 100 Works from the Collection of the Parrish Art Museum. August 1-September 19, 1999. Group exhibition. Curated by Klaus Kertess. Included: Dawoud Bey, Hughie Lee-Smith. [Review: Phyllis Braff, NYT, August 22, 1999.] SOUTHAMPTON (NY). Parrish Art Museum. Representing: A show of Identities. 2000. Group exhibition. Curated by Katherine Gass and Ingrid Schaffner. Included: Dawoud Bey, Kerry James Marshall. ST. LOUIS (MO). Philip Slein Gallery. Other Ways, Other Times: Influences of African-American Tradition from St. Louis Collections. October 24-November 21, 2014. Group exhibition. Included: Radcliffe Bailey, Jean Michel Basquiat, Dawoud Bey, Beauford Delaney, Ellen Gallagher, Rashid Johnson, Glenn Ligon, Lorna Simpson, Mose Tolliver, Kara Walker, Kehinde Wiley, and others. STAMFORD (CT). Whitney Museum of American Art at Champion. Fact or Fiction. 1995. Group exhibition. Included: Dawoud Bey. STATEN ISLAND (NY). Newhouse Center for Contemporary Art, Snug Harbor Cultural Center. Through the Looking Glass: Visions of Childhood. 1999. Group exhibition. Curated by Olivia Georgia. Included: Dawoud Bey. SUMMIT (NJ). New Jersey Center for Visuals Arts. Identities: Contemporary Portraiture. 2001. Group exhibition. Included: Dawoud Bey, Lezley Saar. SYRACUSE (NY). Light Work. Contact Sheet 124: Embracing Eatonville: A Photographic Survey by Dawoud Bey, Lonnie Graham, Carrie Mae Weems, Deborah Willis. November 4-December 31, 2003. 48 pp., 31 illus. (30 full-page, most in color), plus 1 text illus. Intro. by Jeffrey Hoone; text by Franklin Sirmans; afterword by N.Y. Nathiri, statement by Weems. [Re-exhibited at Light Work February 1-May 29, 2009 concurrent with limited edition reissue of this portfolio of photographs.] Sq. 8vo (8.5 x 8 in.), stapled wraps. First ed. SYRACUSE (NY). Light Work. Contact Sheet 51. 1986. Includes: Dawoud Bey. 8vo, stapled wraps. First ed. SYRACUSE (NY). Light Work. Contact Sheet 53. 1987. Includes: Dawoud Bey. 8vo, stapled wraps. First ed. SYRACUSE (NY). Light Work. Contact Sheet 97: Twenty Fifth Anniversary Edition. 1998. 96 pp., over 275 photographs made by artists who have participated in Light Work's programs since 1973. Text: Jeffrey Hoone, Gary Nickard, Deborah Willis, Marilyn Nance and Gary Hesse. Artists include: Jules Allen, Dawoud Bey, Hilton Braithwaite, Albert Chong, Kerry Stuart Coppin, Renée Cox, Gerald Cyrus, Lydia Ann Douglas, Lou Draper, Bill Gaskins, Tyrone Georgiou, Tony Gleaton, Willie Middlebrook, Marilyn Nance, Keith Piper, Fazal Sheikh, Clarissa Sligh, Maxine Walker, Carrie Mae Weems, Deborah Willis, et al. Sq. 8vo (8.5 x 8 in.), stapled wraps. First ed. SYRACUSE (NY). Robert B. Menschel Photography Gallery, Syracuse University. En Foco/In Focus: Selected Works from the Permanent Collection. September 1, 2011-January 31, 2012. Group exhibition of 56 prints by 49 artists. Included: Dawoud Bey, Terry Boddie, Samantha Box, Gerald Cyrus, Lola Flash, Myra Greene, Stephen Marc, Juan Sanchez, Hank Willis Thomas, Wendel A. White. [Traveled to: CIS Main Building, San Francisco, CA, January 22-March 24, 2013,] TAHA, HALIMA. Collecting African American Art: Works on Paper and Canvas. New York: Crown, 1998. xvi, 270 pp., approx. 150 color plates, brief bibliog., index, appendices of art and photo dealers, museums and other resources. Intro. by Ntozake Shange. Forewords by Dierdre Bibby and Samella Lewis. Text consists of a few sentences at best on most of the hundreds of listed artists. Numerous typos and other errors and misinformation throughout. 4to (29 cm.), laminated papered boards, d.j. TOKYO (Japan). Tokyo Metropolitan Museum of Photography. American Perspectives: Photographs from the Polaroid Collection. September 12-November 12, 2000. 224 pp. exhib. cat., b&w and color illus. In English and Japanese. A selection of 162 works by 77 artists from the Polaroid Collection. Curated by Michiko Kasahara with the assistance of Barbara Hitchcock. Included: Dawoud Bey, Maria Magdalena Campos-Pons, Tyrone Georgiou, Lorna Simpson, Carrie Mae Weems. 8vo (25 cm.), pictorial wraps. URBANA-CHAMPAIGN (IL). Krannert Art Museum, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Social Studies: Eight Artists Address Brown v. Board of Education. April 2-May 23, 2004. Exhibition catalogue. Traveling exhibition presenting the viewpoints of eight contemporary artists on the 50th anniversary of the landmark school desegregation case. Dawoud Bey, Sanford Biggers, Brett Cook-Dizney, Gary Simmons, Carrie Mae Weems. This is the third exhibition organized by Social Studies Projects, a non-profit organization under the direction of Carrie Mae Weems that seeks to address important social and political issues through visual art. [Traveled to: Spencer Art Museum, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, October 9-December 5, 2004.] WALKER, REBECCA, ed. Black Cool: One Thousand Streams of Blackness. Berkeley: Soft Skull Press, 2012. 160 pp. Foreword by Henry Louis Gates. Includes texts by photographers Dawoud Bey, Hank Willis Thomas and graphic novelist Mat Johnson. 8vo (8.2 x 5.6 in.), wraps. First ed. WASHINGTON (DC). Howard University Gallery of Art. Mixing Metaphors: The Aesthetic, the Social and the Political in African American Art. August 14-December 17, 2010. Exhib. cat., illus. Group traveling exhibition. Curated by Deborah Willis - a selection from the Bank of America collection. 94 photographs, paintings, prints, drawings, sculpture and mixed media executed by 37 artists ranging from range from photographers Ernest C. Withers, Robert Sengstacke, Jamel Shabazz, Lorna Simpson, Chuck Stewart, Gordon Parks, Dawoud Bey, Carrie Mae Weems, and James VanDerZee to Henry Clay Anderson, Benny Andrews, Romare Bearden, John Biggers, Willie Birch, Beverly Buchanan, Walter Cade, Kevin E. Cole, Robert Colescott, Allan Rohan Crite, Allan Edmunds, Lawrence Finney, Sam Gilliam, Earlie Hudnall, Margo Humphrey, Jacob Lawrence. Willie Little, Juan Logan, Whitfield Lovell, Julie Mehretu, Martin Puryear, Faith Ringgold, Mario A. Robinson, Raymond Saunders, Leo Twiggs, James W. Washington, William T. Williams, and Fred Wilson. [Traveled to: The Jimmy Carter Presidential Library & Museum, Atlanta, GA, March 19-July 31, 2011.] WASHINGTON (DC). National Portrait Gallery. Portraiture Now: Series 1: William Beckman, Dawoud Bey, Nina Levy, Jason Salavon Andres Serrano. July 1, 2006-January 7, 2007. 28 pp. exhib. cat., color illus. WASHINGTON (DC). Washington Project for the Arts. The Blues Aesthetic: Black Culture and Modernism. September 14-December 9, 1989. 104 pp. exhibition catalogue, 19 color plates, 34 b&w illus., bibliog. Curated by Richard J. Powell; texts by John Cephas, Dwight D. Andrews, Eleanor W. Traylor, Ethelbert E. Miller, John M. Vlach, Kellie Jones, Sherril Berryman-Miller, Jeffrey Stewart, Joseph A. Brown. Many white artists are included in the exhibition as "kindred spirits" and given a disproportionately high number of the few color plates without any satisfactory textual justification. African American artists included: Billy Fundi Abernathy, Terry Adkins, Candida Alvarez, Anthony Barboza, Jean Michel Basquiat, Romare Bearden, Frederick Becker, Dawoud Bey, John Biggers, Camille Billops, Willie Birch, Roy DeCarava, Robert Colescott, Houston Conwill, Sarah Covington (discussed in text only), Aaron Douglas, Melvin Edwards, Mikki Ferrill, Roland Freeman, Sam Gilliam, Margo Humphrey, Martha Jackson-Jarvis, William H. Johnson, Jacob Lawrence, Norman Lewis, Roy Lewis, Bert Long, Keith Morrison, Archibald Motley, Joe Overstreet, Alison Saar, Coreen Simpson, Beuford Smith, Frank Stewart, Bob Thompson; videos by Lawrence Andrews, Tony Cokes and Philip Mallory Jones. [Traveled to: California African American Museum, Los Angeles, CA; Duke University Museum of Art, Durham, NC; Blaffer Gallery, University of Houston, Houston, TX; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York, NY.] 4to (29 cm.), wraps. First ed. WELLESLEY (MA). Davis Museum and Cultural Center, Wellesley Collage. Consuming Passions: Photography and The Object. 1998. Group photograph y exhibition. Included: Dawoud Bey. WILLIS DEBORAH (photo ed.) and MICHAEL H. COTTMAN (text). The Family of Black America. New York: Crown, 1996. 189 pp., color and b&w illus. Research by Linda Tarrant-Reid. Photographers include: James Vanderzee, Richard Samuel Roberts, Radcliffe Bailey, Dawoud Bey, Roland Charles, Marvin Edwards, Roland Freeman, Lonnie Graham, Chester Higgins, Jr., Lou Jones, Winston Kennedy, William E. Lathan, Stephen Marc, John W. Mosley, Jeanne Moutoussamy-Ashe, Gordon Parks, John Pinderhughes, Eugene Roquemore, David "Oggi" Ogburn, Mei Tei Sing Smith, Hank Sloane Thomas (aka Hank Willis Thomas), Lester Sloan, Jeffrey Henson Scales, Accra Shepp, Moneta Sleet, Jr., Clarissa Sligh, Ron Tarver, Carrie Mae Weems, Robert Whitby, Wendel A. White, Juanita Williams, Mel Wright. 4to, wraps. First ed. WILLIS, DEBORAH, ed. Black Photographers: 1940-1988, An Illustrated Bio-Bibliography. New York: Garland, 1989. 483 pp., over 350 illus. The most comprehensive list of Black photographers to date, with brief biographical entries on many artists and a few bibliographical entries on approximately half of the hundreds of names. Photographers included in Willis's earlier book, Black Photographers 1840-1940, receive only a brief notation here. An indispensable reference work. Artists discussed include: Salimah Ali, Omobowale Ayorinde, J. Edward Bailey, III, Anthony Barboza, Donnamarie Barnes, Vanessa Barnes Hillian, Fay D. Bellamy, Lisa Bellamy, Dawoud Bey, Hart Leroy Bibbs, Bonnie Brisset, Barbara Brown, Lisa Brown, Millie Burns, Muriel Agatha Fortune Bush, Cynthia D. Cole, Juanita Cole, Cary Beth Cryor, Tere L. Cuesta, Fikisha Cumbo, Phyllis Cunningham, Pat Davis, Carmen DeJesus, Lydia Ann Douglas, Barbara Dumetz, Joan Eda, Sharon Farmer, Phoebe Farris, Valeria "Mikki" Ferrill, Collette V. Fournier, Roland L. Freeman, Rennie George, Bernadette F. B. Gibson, Anthony Gleaton, Dorothy Gloster, Lydia Hale-Hammond, Gail Adelle Hansberry, Inge Hardison, Teenie Harris, Madeleine Hill, Zebonia Hood, Vera Jackson, Louise Jefferson, Michelle M. Jeffries, Brent Jones, Brian V. Jones, Julia Jones, Kenneth G. Jones, Marvin T. Jones, Leah Jaynes Karp, Irene C. Kellogg, Lucius King, Romulo Lachatanere, Allie Sharon Larkin, George Larkins, Archy La Salle, Abe C. Lavalais, Joyce Lee, Sa'Longo J.R. Lee, Carl E. Lewis, Harvey James Lewis, Matthew Lewis, Roy Lewis, Fern Logan, Edie Lynch, Peter Magubane, Jimmie Mannas, Louise Martin, Mickey Mathis, Carroll T. Maynard, Rhashidah Elaine McNeill, Marlene Montoute, Michelle Morgan, Jeanne Moutoussamy-Ashe, Marilyn Nance, Yvonne Payne, Patricia Phipps, Ellen Queen, Phillda Ragland, Arkili-Casundria Ramsess, Odetta Rogers, Veronica Saddler, Lloyd Saunders, Cheryl Shackelton, Victoria Simmons, Coreen Simpson, Lorna Simpson, Clarissa T. Sligh, Ming Smith, Toni Smith, Charlynn Spencer Pyne, Jo Moore Stewart, Celeste P. Stokes, Elisabeth Sunday, Elaine Tomlin, Sandra Turner-Bond, Jacqueline La Vetta Van Sertima, Dixie Vereen, William Onikwa Wallace, Sharon Watson-Mauro, Carrie Mae Weems, Dolores West, Judith C. White, Elizabeth "Tex" Williams, Lucy Williams, Pat Ward Williams, Deborah Willis, Carol R. Wilson, Jonni Mae Wingard, Ernest Withers, and many, many others. Not all listed in this description, but all individual photographers are cross-listed. Large stout 4to, pictorial boards, no d.j. (as issued). First ed. WILLIS, DEBORAH, ed. Reflections in Black: A History of Black Photographers 1840 to the Present. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 2000. 348 pp., 81 color plates, 487 b&w illus., notes, bibliog., index. Foreword by Robin D.G. Kelley. Published to accompany the three-part traveling exhibition organized by the Smithsonian Institution. Important gathering of photographs of Black subjects by African American photographers from mid-nineteenth century through the present (roughly half from 1980s and 90s) by the pre-eminent historian of this subject. Photographers include: O'Neal Abel, Salima Ali, James Lattimer Allen, Winifred Hall Allen, Amalia Amaki, Linda L. Ammons, Ken D. Ashton, Thomas Askew, John B. Bailey, James Presley Ball, Sr., James Presley Ball, Jr., Thomas Ball, Anthony Barboza, Cornelius M. Battey, Anthony Beale, Arthur P. Bedou, Donald Bernard, Dawoud Bey, Howard Bingham, Caroll Parrott Blue, Terry Boddie, Rick Bolton, St. Clair Bourne, George O. Brown, John H. Brown, Jr., Keith M. Calhoun, Dennis Callwood, Don Camp, Roland Charles, Albert Chong, Carl Clark, Linda Day Clark, Allen Edward Cole, Florestine Perrault Collins, Herbert Collins, Adger Cowans, Renée Cox, Cary Beth Cryor, Steven Cummings, Gerald G. Cyrus, Jack Davis, C. Daniel Dawson, Roy DeCarava, Doris Derby, Stephanie Dinkins, Lou Draper, George Durr, Nekisha Durrett, Edward (Eddie) Eleha, Darrel Ellis, Jonathan Eubanks, Delphine A. Fawundu, Alfred Fayemi, Jeffrey Fearing, Joe Flowers, Collette Fournier, Jack T. Franklin, Elnora Frazier, Daniel Freeman, Roland L. Freeman, King Daniel Ganaway, Bill Gaskins, Glenalvin Goodridge, Wallace Goodridge, William Goodridge, Bob Gore, Lonnie Graham, Todd Gray, Camille Gustus, Robert Haggins, Austin Hansen, Edwin Harleston, Elise Forrest Harleston, Charles "Teenie" Harris, Doug Harris, Joe Harris, Lyle Ashton Harris, Thomas Allen Harris, Lucius Henderson, Craig Herndon, Leroy Henderson, Calvin Hicks, Chester Higgins, Jr., Milton Hinton, Raymond Holman, Earlie Hudnall, Jr., Curtis Humphrey, Reginald Jackson, Chris Johnson, Brent Jones, Kenneth George Jones, Lou Jones, Benny Joseph, Kamoinge Workshop, Perry A. Keith, Andrew T. Kelly, Roshini Kempadoo, Winston Kennedy, Keba Konte, Andree Lambertson, Bill Lathan, Carl E. Lewis, Nashomeh L. R. Lindo, Harlee Little, Fern Logan, Stephen Marc, Lynn Marshall-Linnemeier, Charles Martin, Louise Ozell Martin, Chandra McCormick, Robert H. McNeill, Bertrand Miles, Cheryl Miller, Robert (Bob) Moore, John W. Mosley, Jeanne Moutoussamy-Ashe, Ming Smith Murray (as Ming Smith), Mansa Mussa, Marilyn Nance, Sunny Nash, Constance Newman, David Ogburn, G. Dwoyid Olmstead, Kambui Olujimi, Villard Paddio, Gordon Parks, D.M. Pearson, Moira Pernambuco, Bonnie Phillips, John Pinderhughes, P. H. Polk, Paul Poole, Carl R. Pope, Marion James Porter, Sheila Pree, Eli Reed, Richard Roberts, Wilhelmina Williams Roberts, Orville Robertson, Herb Robinson, Eugene Roquemore, Susan J. Ross, Ken Royster, Jeffery St. Mary, Richard Saunders, Jeffrey Scales, Addison L. Scurlock, George H. Scurlock, Robert S. Scurlock, Robert A. Sengstacke, Harry Shepherd, Accra Shepp, Carl Sidle, Coreen Simpson, Lorna Simpson, Moneta Sleet, Clarissa Sligh, Beuford Smith, Marvin Smith, Morgan Smith, Frank Stallings, Charles (Chuck) Stewart, Gerald Straw, Ron Tarver, Hank Willis Thomas, Elaine Tomlin, June DeLairre Truesdale, Sheila Turner, Richard Aloysius Twine, James Vanderzee, Vincent Alan W., Christian Walker, Shawn W. Walker, Augustus Washington, Lewis Watts, Carrie Mae Weems, Ellie Lee Weems, Jean Weisinger, Edward West, Wendel A. White, Cynthia Wiggins, Carlton Wilkinson, Carla Williams, Charles Williams, Milton Williams, Pat Ward Williams, William Earle Williams, Ernest C. Withers, Mel Wright. Large 4to (31 cm.), cloth, d.j. First ed. WOODSTOCK (NY). Center for Photography at Woodstock. Fresh: Youth Culture in Contemporary Photographs. April 17-June 13, 2004. Group exhibition. Curated by Nancy Barr & Carlo McCormick. Included: Dawoud Bey, Dennis Olanzo Callwood. Dawoud Bey (born 1953) is an American photographer and educator renowned for his large-scale color portraits of adolescents and other often marginalized subjects. In 2017, Bey was the recipient of a "Genius Grant" from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. Life and careerBorn David Edward Smikle in New York City's Jamaica, Queens neighborhood, he changed his name to Dawoud Bey in the early 1970s. He studied at the School of Visual Arts in New York from 1977–78, graduated with a BFA in Photography from Empire State College in 1990, and received his MFA from Yale University School of Art in 1993. Over the course of his career, Bey has participated in more than 20 artist residencies, which have allowed him to work directly with the adolescent subjects of his most recent work. A product of the 1960s, Dawoud Bey said both he and his work are products of the attitude, “if you’re not part of the solution, you’re part of the problem.” This philosophy significantly influenced his artistic practice and resulted in a way of working that is both community-focused and collaborative in nature. Bey’s earliest photographs, in the style of street photography, evolved into a seminal five-year project documenting the everyday life and people of Harlem in Harlem USA (1975–1979) that was exhibited at the Studio Museum in Harlem in 1979. In 2012, the Art Institute of Chicago mounted the first complete showing of the "Harlem, USA' photographs since that original exhibition, adding several never before printed photographs to the original group of twenty-five vintage prints. The complete group of photographs were acquired at that time by the AIC. Of his work with teenagers Bey has said, “My interest in young people has to do with the fact that they are the arbiters of style in the community; their appearance speaks most strongly of how a community of people defines themselves at a particular historical moment." During a residency at the Addison Gallery of American Art in 1992, Bey began photographing students from a variety of high schools both public and private, in an effort to “reach across lines of presumed differences” among the students and communities. This new direction in his work guided Bey for the next fifteen years, including two additional residencies at the Addison, an ample number of similar projects across the country, and culminated in a major 2007 exhibition and publication of portraits of teenagers organized by Aperture and entitled Class Pictures. Alongside each of the photographs in Class Pictures, is a personal statement written by each subject. This rich combination of image and text expands the notion of the photographic portrait, and further creates portraits that are each incredibly powerful in its amalgamation, at times surprising, disturbing, and heart-wrenching. Currently living in Chicago, Illinois Bey is a professor of art and Distinguished College Artist at Columbia College Chicago, and is represented by Mary Boone Gallery (NYC), Rena Bransten Gallery (San Francisco), and Stephen Daiter Gallery (Chicago). Awards and exhibitionsBey was the recipient of an artist fellowship at Creative Artists Public Service (CAPS), New York in 1983, an artist fellowship from the New York Foundation for the Arts in 1986, a regional fellowship form the National Endowment for the Arts in 1991, and the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation Fellowship in 2002. He has exhibited in a number of solo and group shows including Dawoud Bey: Portraits 1975-1995 at the Walker Art Center in 1995, Dawoud Bey at the Queens Museum of Art in 1998, Dawoud Bey: The Chicago Project at the David and Alfred Smart Museum of Art in 2003, Dawoud Bey: Detroit Portraits at the Detroit Institute of Arts in 2004, and Class Pictures, organized by the Aperture Foundation and on view initially at the Addison Gallery of American Art in 2007, and then touring to museums throughout the country for four years, including the Contemporary Arts Museum Houston, the Indianapolis Museum of Art, and the Milwaukee Art Museum among others. His most recently completed work "The Birmingham Project" commemorates the six young African Americans killed in Birmingham, AL on September 15, 1963. The exhibition opened at the Birmingham Museum of Art in September 2013, fifty years after that tragic day. The exhibition will open at George Eastman House, International Museum of Photography and Film in 2016. Dawoud Bey (born 1953) is an American photographer and educator renowned for his large-scale color portraits of adolescents and other often marginalized subjects. In 2017, Bey was the recipient of a "Genius Grant" from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. Born David Edward Smikle in New York City's Jamaica, Queens neighborhood, he changed his name to Dawoud Bey in the early 1970s. He studied at the School of Visual Arts in New York from 1977–78, graduated with a BFA in Photography from Empire State College in 1990, and received his MFA from Yale University School of Artin 1993. Over the course of his career, Bey has participated in more than 20 artist residencies, which have allowed him to work directly with the adolescent subjects of his most recent work. A product of the 1960s, Dawoud Bey said both he and his work are products of the attitude, “if you’re not part of the solution, you’re part of the problem. This philosophy significantly influenced his artistic practice and resulted in a way of working that is both community-focused and collaborative in nature. Bey’s earliest photographs, in the style of street photography, evolved into a seminal five-year project documenting the everyday life and people of Harlem in Harlem USA (1975–1979) that was exhibited at the Studio Museum in Harlem in 1979. In 2012, the Art Institute of Chicago mounted the first complete showing of the "Harlem, USA' photographs since that original exhibition, adding several never before printed photographs to the original group of twenty-five vintage prints. The complete group of photographs were acquired at that time by the AIC. Of his work with teenagers Bey has said, “My interest in young people has to do with the fact that they are the arbiters of style in the community; their appearance speaks most strongly of how a community of people defines themselves at a particular historical moment."  During a residency at the Addison Gallery of American Art in 1992, Bey began photographing students from a variety of high schools both public and private, in an effort to “reach across lines of presumed differences” among the students and communities. This new direction in his work guided Bey for the next fifteen years, including two additional residencies at the Addison, an ample number of similar projects across the country, and culminated in a major 2007 exhibition and publication of portraits of teenagers organized by Aperture and entitled Class Pictures. Alongside each of the photographs in Class Pictures, is a personal statement written by each subject. This rich combination of image and text expands the notion of the photographic portrait, and further creates portraits that are each incredibly powerful in its amalgamation, at times surprising, disturbing, and heart-wrenching. Currently living in Chicago, Illinois Bey is a professor of art and Distinguished College Artist at Columbia College Chicago, and is represented by Mary Boone Gallery (NYC), Rena Bransten Gallery (San Francisco), and Stephen Daiter Gallery (Chicago). African-American topicsAfrican AmericaHistory (timeline)[show]Culture[show]Religion[show]Political movements[show]Civic / economic groups[show]Sports[show]Ethnic subdivisions[show]Languages[show]Diaspora[show]Lists[show]Category: African-American societyAmericaAfrica.svg African American portalvteAfrican-American art is a broad term describing the visual arts of the American black community (African Americans). Influenced by various cultural traditions, including those of Africa, Europe and the Americas, traditional African-American art forms include the range of plastic arts, from basket weaving, pottery, and quilting to woodcarving and painting. Contents1History1.1Pre-colonial, Antebellum and Civil War eras1.2Post-Civil War1.3The Harlem Renaissance to contemporary art1.3.1Mid-20th century2See also3References4Sources5External linksHistoryPre-colonial, Antebellum and Civil War eras This is the carved powder horn by carver John Bush from around 1754. Harriet Powers, Bible quilt, Mixed Media. 1898.Prior to the 20th century, African-American art existed during the French and Indian War. John Bush was a powder horn carver and soldier with the Massachusetts militia fighting with the British. His work has toured throughout Canada and the US. His powder horn of 1756 has been part of a travelling exhibition throughout Canada and US. Art continued in subsequent slave communities, through the end of the 20th century, African-American art has made a vital contribution to the art of the United States. During the period between the 17th century and the early 19th century art took the form of small drums, quilts, wrought-iron figures and ceramic vessels in the southern United States; these artifacts have similarities with comparable crafts in West and Central Africa. In contrast, black artisans like the New England–based engraver Scipio Moorhead and the Baltimore portrait painter Joshua Johnson created art that was conceived in a western European fashion for their local markets. Many of Africa’s most skilled artisans were enslaved in the Americas, while others learned their trades or crafts as apprentices to African or white skilled workers. It was often the practice for slave owners to hire out skilled artisans. With the consent of their masters, some slave artisans also were able to keep a small percentage of the wages earned in their free time and thereby save enough money to purchase their, and their families', freedom. G. W. Hobbs, Patrick H. Reason, Joshua Johnson, and Scipio Moorhead were among the earliest known portrait artists, from the period of 1773–1887. Patronage by some white families allowed for private tutorship in special cases. Many of these sponsoring whites were abolitionists. The artists received more encouragement and were better able to support themselves in cities, of which there were more in the North and border states. Harriet Powers (1837–1910) was an African-American folk artist and quilt maker from rural Georgia, United States, born into slavery. Now nationally recognized for her quilts, she used traditional appliqué techniques to record local legends, Bible stories, and astronomical events on her quilts. Only two of her late quilts have survived: Bible Quilt 1886 and Bible Quilt 1898. Her quilts are considered among the finest examples of 19th-century Southern quilting,. Like Powers, the women of Gee's Bend developed a distinctive, bold, and sophisticated quilting style based on traditional American (and African-American) quilts, but with a geometric simplicity. Although widely separated by geography, they have qualities reminiscent of Amish quilts and modern art. The women of Gee's Bend passed their skills and aesthetic down through at least six generations to the present. At one time scholars believed slaves sometimes utilized quilt blocks to alert other slaves about escape plans during the time of the Underground Railroad, but most historians do not agree. Quilting remains alive as form of artistic expression in the African-American community. Post-Civil WarAfter the Civil War, it became increasingly acceptable for African American-created works to be exhibited in museums, and artists increasingly produced works for this purpose. These were works mostly in the European romantic and classical traditions of landscapes and portraits. Edward Mitchell Bannister, Henry Ossawa Tanner and Edmonia Lewis are the most notable of this time. Others include Grafton Tyler Brown, Nelson A. Primus and Meta Vaux Warrick Fuller. The goal of widespread recognition across racial boundaries was first eased within America's big cities, including Philadelphia, Boston, Chicago, New York, and New Orleans. Even in these places, however, there were discriminatory limitations. Abroad, however, African Americans were much better received. In Europe — especially Paris, France — these artists could express much more freedom in experimentation and education concerning techniques outside traditional western art. Freedom of expression was much more prevalent in Paris as well as Munich and Rome to a lesser extent. The Harlem Renaissance to contemporary art Sand Dunes at Sunset, Atlantic City by Henry Ossawa Tanner is in the collection of the White House, and hangs in the Green Room. Acquired during the Clinton administration with funds from the White House Acquisition Trust, it is the first artwork in the White House by an African American.The Harlem Renaissance was one of the most notable movements in African-American art. Certain freedoms and ideas that were already widespread in many parts of the world at the time had begun to spread into the artistic communities United States during the 1920s. During this period notable artists included Richmond Barthé, Aaron Douglas, Lawrence Harris, Palmer Hayden, William H. Johnson, Sargent Johnson, John T. Biggers, Earle Wilton Richardson, Malvin Gray Johnson, Archibald Motley, Augusta Savage, Hale Woodruff, and photographer James Van Der Zee. The establishment of the Harmon Foundation by art patron William E. Harmon in 1922 sponsored many artists through its Harmon Award and annual exhibitions. As it did with many such endeavors, the 1929 Great Depression largely ended funding for the arts for a time. While the Harmon Foundation still existed in this period, its financial support toward artists ended. The Harmon Foundation, however, continued supporting artists until 1967 by mounting exhibitions and offering funding for developing artists such as Jacob Lawrence. Midnight Golfer by Eugene J. Martin, mixed media collage on rag paper. Kara Walker, Cut, Cut paper and adhesive on wall, Brent Sikkema NYC.The US Treasury Department's Public Works of Art Project ineffectively attempted to provide support for artists in 1933. In 1935, President Franklin D. Roosevelt created the Works Progress Administration (WPA). The WPA provided for all American artists and proved especially helpful to African-American artists. Artists and writers both gained work that helped them survive the Depression. Among them were Jacob Lawrence and Richard Wright. Politics, human and social conditions all became the subjects of accepted art forms. Important cities with significant black populations and important African-American art circles included Philadelphia, Boston, San Francisco and Washington, D.C. The WPA led to a new wave of important black art professors. Mixed media, abstract art, cubism, and social realism became not only acceptable, but desirable. Artists of the WPA united to form the 1935 Harlem Artists Guild, which developed community art facilities in major cities. Leading forms of art included drawing, sculpture, printmaking, painting, pottery, quilting, weaving and photography. By 1939, the costly WPA and its projects all were terminated. In 1943, James A. Porter, a professor in the Department of Art at Howard University, wrote the first major text on African-American art and artists, Modern Negro Art. Mid-20th centuryIn the 1950s and 1960s, few African-American artists were widely known or accepted. Despite this, The Highwaymen, a loose association of 26 African-American artists from Fort Pierce, Florida, created idyllic, quickly realized images of the Florida landscape and peddled some 200,000 of them from the trunks of their cars. In the 1950s and 1960s, it was impossible to find galleries interested in selling artworks by a group of unknown, self-taught African Americans, so they sold their art directly to the public rather than through galleries and art agents. Rediscovered in the mid-1990s, today they are recognized as an important part of American folk history. The current market price for an original Highwaymen painting can easily bring in thousands of dollars. In 2004 the original group of 26 Highwaymen were inducted into the Florida Artists Hall of Fame. Currently 8 of the 26 are deceased, including A. Hair, H. Newton, Ellis and George Buckner, A. Moran, L. Roberts, Hezekiah Baker and most recently Johnny Daniels. The full list of 26 can be found in the Florida Artists Hall of Fame, as well as various highwaymen and Florida art websites. Jerry Harris, Dogon mother and child, constructed and carved wood with found objects, laminated clay (Bondo), and wooden dowels.After the Second World War, some artists took a global approach, working and exhibiting abroad, in Paris, and as the decade wore on, relocated gradually in other welcoming cities such as Copenhagen, Amsterdam, and Stockholm: Barbara Chase-Riboud, Edward Clark, Harvey Cropper, Beauford Delaney, Herbert Gentry, Bill Hutson, Clifford Jackson, Sam Middleton, Larry Potter, Haywood Bill Rivers, Merton Simpson, and Walter Williams. Some African-American artists did make it into important New York galleries by the 1950s and 1960s: Horace Pippin, Romare Bearden, Jacob Lawrence, William T. Williams, Norman Lewis, Thomas Sills, and Sam Gilliam were among the few who had successfully been received in a gallery setting. The Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s and 1970s led artists to capture and express the times and changes. Galleries and community art centers developed for the purpose of displaying African-American art, and collegiate teaching positions were created by and for African-American artists. Some African-American women were also active in the feminist art movement in the 1970s. Faith Ringgold made work that featured black female subjects and that addressed the conjunction of racism and sexism in the U.S., while the collective Where We At (WWA) held exhibitions exclusively featuring the artwork of African-American women. By the 1980s and 1990s, hip-hop graffiti became predominate in urban communities. Most major cities had developed museums devoted to African-American artists. The National Endowment for the Arts provided increasing support for these artists. Important collections of African-American art include the Walter O. Evans Collection of African American Art, the Paul R. Jones collections at the University of Delaware and University of Alabama, the David C. Driskell Art collection, the Harmon and Harriet Kelley Collection of African American Art, the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, and the Mott-Warsh collection. Kara Walker, a contemporary American artist, is known for her exploration of race, gender, sexuality, violence and identity in her artworks. Walker's silhouette images work to bridge unfinished folklore in the Antebellum South and are reminiscent of the earlier work of Harriet Powers. Her nightmarish yet fantastical images incorporate a cinematic feel. In 2007, Walker was listed among Time Magazine's "100 Most Influential People in The World, Artists and Entertainers". Textile artists are part of African-American art history. According to the 2010 Quilting in America industry survey, there are 1.6 million quilters in the United States. Influential contemporary artists include Larry D. Alexander, Laylah Ali, Amalia Amaki, Emma Amos, Jean-Michel Basquiat, Dawoud Bey, Camille Billops, Mark Bradford, Edward Clark, Willie Cole, Robert Colescott, Louis Delsarte, David C. Driskell, Leonardo Drew, Mel Edwards, Ricardo Francis, Charles Gaines, Ellen Gallagher, Herbert Gentry, Sam Gilliam, David Hammons, Jerry Harris, Joseph Holston, Richard Hunt, Martha Jackson-Jarvis, Katie S. Mallory, M. Scott Johnson, Rashid Johnson, Joe Lewis, Glenn Ligon, James Little, Edward L. Loper, Sr., Alvin D. Loving, Kerry James Marshall, Eugene J. Martin, Richard Mayhew, Sam Middleton, Howard McCalebb, Charles McGill, Thaddeus Mosley, Sana Musasama, Senga Nengudi, Joe Overstreet, Martin Puryear, Adrian Piper, Howardena Pindell, Faith Ringgold, Gale Fulton Ross, Alison Saar, Betye Saar, John Solomon Sandridge, Raymond Saunders, John T. Scott, Joyce Scott, Gary Simmons, Lorna Simpson, Renee Stout, Kara Walker, Carrie Mae Weems, Stanley Whitney, William T. Williams, Jack Whitten, Fred Wilson, Richard Wyatt, Jr., Richard Yarde, and Purvis Young, Kehinde Wiley, Mickalene Thomas, Barkley Hendricks, Jeff Sonhouse, William Walker, Ellsworth Ausby, Che Baraka, Emmett Wigglesworth, Otto Neals, Dindga McCannon, Terry Dixon (artist), Frederick J. Brown, and many others. Artists Scipio Moorhead, Portrait of poet Phillis Wheatley, 1773, in the frontispiece to her book Poems on Various Subjects Edward Mitchell Bannister, Driving Home the Cows 1881 Harriet Powers, Bible quilt, mixed media, 1886 Henry Ossawa Tanner, Gateway, Tangier, 1912, oil on canvas, 18 7/16" × 15 5/16", St. Louis Art Museum Charles Alston, Again The Springboard Of Civilization, 1943 (WWII African American soldier) Larry D. Alexander,Greenville Courthouse, 1998A–BTerry Adkins (1953–2014), artistMequitta Ahuja (born 1976), painter, installation artistLarry D. Alexander (born 1953), painterLaylah Ali (born 1968), painterJules T. Allen (born 1947), photographerTina Allen (1949–2008), sculptorCharles Alston (1907–1977), painterAmalia Amaki (born 1959), artistEmma Amos (born 1938), painterBenny Andrews (1930–2006), painterEdgar Arceneaux (born 1972), drawing artistRadcliffe Bailey (born 1968) collage, sculptureKyle Baker (born 1965), cartoonistMatt Baker (1921–1959), comic book artistJames Presley Ball (1825–1904), photographerAlvin Baltrop (1948-2004), photographerHenry Bannarn (1910–1965), painterEdward Mitchell Bannister (1828–1901), painterErnie Barnes (1938–2009), neo-Mannerist artistRichmond Barthé (1901–1989), sculptorJean-Michel Basquiat (1960–1988), painterC. M. Battey (1873–1927), photographerRomare Bearden (1911–1988), painterArthello Beck (1941–2004), painterArthur P. Bedou (1882–1966), photographerDarrin Bell (born 1975), cartoonistMary A. Bell (1873–1941)Dawoud Bey (born 1953), photographerJohn T. Biggers (1924–2001), muralistSanford Biggers (born 1970), interdisciplinaryGene Bilbrew (1923–1974), cartoonist and fetish artistMcArthur Binion (born 1946), painterRobert Blackburn (1920–2003), printmakerThomas BlackshearBetty Blayton (born 1937), painter, printmakerChakaia Booker (born 1953), sculptorEdythe Boone (born 1938), muralistCharles Boyce (born 1949), cartoonistTina Williams Brewer, fiber artistMichael Bramwell (born 1953), conceptual artistMark Bradford (born 1961)Elenora "Rukiya" Brown, doll creatorFrank J. Brown (born 1956), sculptorFrederick J. Brown (1945–2012), painterLarry Poncho BrownManuelita Brown, sculptorRobert Brown (c. 1936–2007), cartoonistBeverly Buchanan (born 1940), painter, sculptorSelma Burke (1900–1995), sculptorCalvin Burnett (1921–2007), book illustratorPauline Powell Burns (1872–1912), painterJohn Bush (? - 1754), powder horn carverRobert Butler (1943–2014), painterC–DFrank Calloway (born 1915)E. Simms Campbell (1906–1971), cartoonistFred Carter (born 1938), cartoonistBernie Casey (born 1939), painterElizabeth Catlett (1915–2012), sculptor and printmakerNick Cave (born 1959), performance artistMichael Ray Charles (born 1967), painterBarbara Chase-Riboud (born 1936), sculptorJamour Chames (born 1989), painterDon Hogan Charles (1938–2017), photographerClaude Clark (1915–2001), painter and printmakerEdward Clark (born 1926), painterSonya Clark (born 1967), textile and multimedia artistWillie Cole (born 1955), painterRobert Colescott (1925–2009), painterKennard Copeland (born 1966), ceramic sculptures Eldzier Cortor (1916–2015), artist and printmakerErnest Crichlow (1914–2005), social realist artistAllan Crite (1910–2007), painter Emilio Cruz (1938–2004), painterFrank E. Cummings III (born 1938), woodworkerMichael Cummings (born 1945), textile artistUlysses Davis (1913–1990), sculptorBing Davis (born 1937), potter and graphic artistRoy DeCarava (1919–2009), photographerBeauford Delaney (1901–1979), painterJoseph Delaney (1904–1991)Louis Delsarte (born 1944), artistJ Rodney Dennis painterJoseph Clinton Devillis (1878-1912), painterThornton Dial (1928–2016)Terry Dixon (born 1969), painter and multimedia artistJeff Donaldson (born 1932), painter and criticAaron Douglas (1899–1979), painterEmory Douglas (born 1943), Black Panther artistJohn E. Dowell Jr. (born 1941), printmaker, etcher, lithographer, and painterDavid C. Driskell (born 1931), artist and scholarRobert Scott Duncanson (1821–1872), Hudson River SchoolE–HWilliam Edmondson (1874–1951), folk art sculptorMel Edwards (born 1937), sculptorWalter Ellison (1899–1977), painterMinnie Evans (1892–1987), folk artist Meta Vaux Warrick Fuller (1877–1968), artistEllen Gallagher (born 1965)Theaster Gates (born 1973), sculptor, ceramicist, and performance artist [Reginald K (Kevin) Gee (born 1964), painterHerbert Gentry (1919–2003), painterWilda Gerideau-Squires (born 1946), photographerRobert A. Gilbert (c. 1870-1942), nature photographerLeah Gilliam (born 1967), media artist and filmmakerSam Gilliam (born 1933), painter Russell T. Gordon (born 1936), printmakerBilly Graham (1935–1999), comic book artistLonnie Graham, photographer and installation artistDeborah Grant (born 1968), painterTodd Gray (born 1954), photographer, installation and performance artistLeamon Green (born 1959)Renee Green (born 1959), installation artistMario Gully, comic book artistTyree Guyton (born 1955)Ed Hamilton (born 1947), sculptorPatrick Earl Hammie (born 1981), painterDavid Hammons (born 1943), artistTrenton Doyle Hancock (born 1974)Edwin Harleston (1882–1931), painterElise Forrest Harleston (1891–1970), photographerKira Lynn Harris (born 1963), multidisciplinaryJohn Wesley Hardrick (1891–1948), painter Jerry Harris (born 1945), sculptorLawrence Harris, painterMarren Hassenger (born 1947), sculptor, installation, performancePalmer Hayden (1893–1973), painterBarkley Hendricks (1945–2017), painterGeorge Herriman (1880–1944), cartoonistAlvin Hollingsworth (1928–2000), illustrator, painterWilliam Howard (active 19th century), American woodworker and craftsmanBryce Hudson (born 1979), painter, sculptorJulien Hudson (1811–1844), painter, sculptorDavid Huffman (born 1963), painterRichard Hunt (born 1935), sculptorClementine Hunter (1886/7–1988), folk artistJ–OSteffani Jemison (born 1981), performance artist, video artistWadsworth Jarrell (born 1929), painter, sculptorAnnette P. Jimerson (born 1966), painterJoshua Johnson (c.1763–c.1824), portrait painter and folk artistMalvin Gray Johnson (1896–1934), painterRashid Johnson (born 1977), conceptual artistSargent Johnson (1888–1967), sculptor William H. Johnson (1902–1970)Calvin B. Jones (1934–2010), painter, muralistJennie C. Jones (born 1968), multidisciplinaryLois Mailou Jones (1905–1998), painterTitus Kaphar (born 1976), painterGwendolyn Knight (1914–2005), artistJacob Lawrence (1917–2000), painterDeana Lawson (born 1979), photographerHughie Lee-Smith (1915–1999), artistEdmonia Lewis (c. 1843–1879), artistNorman Lewis (1909–1979), painterGlenn Ligon (born 1960), painterLlanakila, artist, painter, digital illustrator, and digital artistEdward L. Loper, Sr. (1916–2011), painterWhitfield Lovell (born 1960), artistAlvin D. Loving (1935-2005) artistGwendolyn Ann Magee (1943–2011), artist, quilterClarence Major (born 1936), painterKerry James Marshall (born 1955), painterEugene J. Martin (1938–2005), painterRichard Mayhew (born 1934), Afro-Native American, landscape painterValerie Maynard (born 1937), sculptor, printmaker, painterEaly Mays (born 1959), painterHoward McCalebb (born 1947), artistCorky McCoy, illustratorCharles McGee, (born 1924) painterCharles McGill (born 1964), artist, educatorJulie Mehretu (born 1970), painter, printmakerNicole Miller (born 1982), video artistDean Mitchell (born 1957), painterScipio Moorhead (active 1770s), painterArchibald Motley (1891–1981), painterGus Nall (1919-1995), painterHarold Newton (1934–1994), artistLorraine O'Grady (born 1934), conceptual artistTurtel Onli (born 1952), cartoonistJackie Ormes (1911–1985), cartoonistJohn Outterbridge (born 1933), assemblage artistJoe Overstreet (born 1933), artistP–SGordon Parks (1912–2006), photographer, directorCecelia Pedescleaux (born 1945), quilterDelilah Pierce (1904–1992), artistEarle M. Pilgrim (1923–1976), artistHowardena Pindell (born 1943), painterJerry Pinkney (born 1939), illustratorAdrian Piper (born 1948), conceptual artistRose Piper (1917–2005), painter and textile designerHorace Pippin (1888–1946), painterRae Pleasant (born 1985), illustratorP. H. Polk (1898–1984), photographerCarl Robert Pope (born 1961), photographerWilliam Pope.L (born 1955) conceptual artistHarriet Powers (1837–1910), folk artistMartin Puryear (born 1941), sculptorPatrick H. Reason (1816–1898)Earle Wilton Richardson (1912–1935), artistFaith Ringgold (born 1930), painterHaywood Rivers (1922–2001), painterArthur Rose Sr. (1921–1995), multidisciplinaryBayeté Ross Smith (born 1976), photographerAlison Saar (born 1956), artistBetye Saar (born 1926), artistCharles Sallee (1923–2006), painterReginald Sanders (1921–2001), visual artistRaymond Saunders, painterAugusta Savage (1892–1962), sculptorJohn T. Scott (1940–2007), artistJoyce J. Scott (born 1948), sculptorLorenzo Scott (born 1934), painterWilliam Edouard Scott (1884–1964), painterCharles Sebree (1914–1985), painterEd Sherman (born 1945), photographerThomas Sills (1914–2000), painterGary Simmons (born 1964), artistLorna Simpson (born 1960), artistMerton Simpson (1928–2013), painterWilliam Simpson (1818–1872), portrait painterCauleen Smith (born 1967), filmmakerLeslie Smith III (born 1985), painterVincent D. Smith (1929–2003), painter and printmakerGilda Snowden (1954–2014)Mitchell Squire (born 1958), American installation artist, sculptor and performance artistRaymond Steth (1916–1997)Renee Stout (born 1958), artistMartine Syms (born 1988), artistT–ZHenry Ossawa Tanner (1859–1937), artistMargaret Taylor-Burroughs (1915–2010)Alma Thomas (1891–1978), painter Hank Willis Thomas (born 1976), photographerMickalene Thomas (born 1971), painter and installation artistBob Thompson (1937–1966), painterMildred Thompson (1935–2003), abstract painter, printmaker and sculptorDox Thrash (1892–1962), printmaker, sculptor Bill Traylor (1856–1949)Henry Taylor (born 1958) painterMorrie Turner (1923–2014), cartoonistJames Van Der Zee (1886–1983), photographer Kara Walker (born 1969), artist William Walker (1927–2011), Chicago muralistLaura Wheeler Waring (1887–1948), painterE. M. Washington (born 1962), printmaker and counterfeiterJames W. Washington, Jr. (1908–2000), painter and sculptorCarrie Mae Weems (born 1953), photographerPheoris WestCharles Wilbert White (1918–1979), muralistJack Whitten (1939-2018), painterKehinde Wiley (born 1977), painterGerald Williams (artist) (Born 1941) painterWilliam T. Williams (born 1942), painterDeborah Willis (born 1948), photographerEllis Wilson (1899–1977), painterFred Wilson (born 1954), conceptual artistJohn Woodrow Wilson (1922–2015), sculptorBeulah Woodard (1895–1955), sculptorHale Woodruff (1900–1980), painterRichard Wyatt, Jr., (born 1955), painter, muralistRichard Yarde (1939–2011), watercoloristJoseph Yoakum (1890–1972), self-taught landscape artistPurvis Young (1943–2010), artistArtist groupsThe HighwaymenAfriCOBRAWhere We AtNational Conference of ArtistsSpiral (arts alliance) African-American topicsAfrican AmericaHistory (timeline)[show]Culture[show]Religion[show]Political movements[show]Civic / economic groups[show]Sports[show]Ethnic subdivisions[show]Languages[show]Diaspora[show]Lists[show]Category: African-American societyAmericaAfrica.svg African American portalvte This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2007) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)The Black Arts Movement, Black Aesthetics Movement or BAM is the artistic outgrowth of the Black Power movement that was prominent in the 1960s and early 1970s. Time magazine describes the Black Arts Movement as the "single most controversial movement in the history of African-American literature – possibly in American literature as a whole." The Black Arts Repertory Theatre/School (BARTS), founded in Harlem in 1965 by LeRoi Jones (later known as Amiri Baraka) is a key institution of the Black Arts Movement. Contents1Overview1.1Influence2History2.1Authors2.2Locations3The Black Aesthetic4Major works4.1Black Art4.2"The Revolutionary Theatre"5Effects on society6Associated writers and thinkers7Related exhibitions and conferences8See also9References10External linksOverviewThe movement has been seen as one of the most important times in African-American literature. It inspired black people to establish their own publishing houses, magazines, journals and art institutions. It led to the creation of African-American Studies programs within universities. The movement was triggered by the assassination of Malcolm X. Among the well-known writers who were involved with the movement are Nikki Giovanni, Sonia Sanchez, Maya Angelou, Hoyt W. Fuller, and Rosa Guy. Although not strictly part of the Movement, other notable African-American writers such as novelists Toni Morrison and Ishmael Reed share some of its artistic and thematic concerns. Although Reed is neither a movement apologist nor advocate, he said: I think what Black Arts did was inspire a whole lot of Black people to write. Moreover, there would be no multiculturalism movement without Black Arts. Latinos, Asian Americans, and others all say they began writing as a result of the example of the 1960s. Blacks gave the example that you don't have to assimilate. You could do your own thing, get into your own background, your own history, your own tradition and your own culture. I think the challenge is for cultural sovereignty and Black Arts struck a blow for that. BAM influenced the world of literature with the portrayal of different ethnic voices. Before the movement, the literary canon lacked diversity, and the ability to express ideas from the point of view of racial and ethnic minorities, which was not valued by the mainstream at the time. InfluenceTheatre groups, poetry performances, music and dance were centered on this movement, and therefore African Americans gained social and historical recognition in the area of literature and arts. Due to the agency and credibility given, African Americans were also able to educate others through different types of expressions and media outlets about cultural differences. The most common form of teaching was through poetry reading. African-American performances were used for their own political advertisement, organization, and community issues. The Black Arts Movement was spread by the use of newspaper advertisements. The first major arts movement publication was in 1964. "No one was more competent in [the] combination of the experimental and the vernacular than Amiri Baraka, whose volume Black Magic Poetry 1961–1967 (1969) is one of the finest products of the African-American creative energies of the 1960s." HistoryThe beginnings of the Black Arts Movement may be traced to 1965, when Amiri Baraka, at that time still known as Leroi Jones, moved uptown to establish the Black Arts Repertory Theatre/School (BARTS) following the assassination of Malcolm X. Rooted in the Nation of Islam, the Black Power Movement and the Civil Rights Movement, the Black Arts Movement grew out of a changing political and cultural climate in which Black artists attempted to create politically engaged work that explored the African American cultural and historical experience. Black artists and intellectuals such as Baraka made it their project to reject older political, cultural, and artistic traditions. Although the success of sit-ins and public demonstrations of the Black student movement in the 1960s may have "inspired black intellectuals, artists, and political activists to form politicized cultural groups," many Black Arts activists rejected the non-militant integrational ideologies of the Civil Rights Movement and instead favored those of the Black Liberation Struggle, which emphasized "self-determination through self-reliance and Black control of significant businesses, organization, agencies, and institutions." According to the Academy of American Poets, "African American artists within the movement sought to create politically engaged work that explored the African American cultural and historical experience." The importance that the movement placed on Black autonomy is apparent through the creation of institutions such as the Black Arts Repertoire Theatre School (BARTS), created in the spring of 1964 by Baraka and other Black artists. The opening of BARTS in New York City often overshadow the growth of other radical Black Arts groups and institutions all over the United States. In fact, transgressional and international networks, those of various Left and nationalist (and Left nationalist) groups and their supports, existed far before the movement gained popularity. Although the creation of BARTS did indeed catalyze the spread of other Black Arts institutions and the Black Arts movement across the nation, it was not solely responsible for the growth of the movement. Although the Black Arts Movement was a time filled with black success and artistic progress, the movement also faced social and racial ridicule. The leaders and artists involved called for Black Art to define itself and speak for itself from the security of its own institutions. For many of the contemporaries the idea that somehow black people could express themselves through institutions of their own creation and with ideas whose validity was confirmed by their own interests and measures was absurd. While it is easy to assume that the movement began solely in the Northeast, it actually started out as "separate and distinct local initiatives across a wide geographic area," eventually coming together to form the broader national movement. New York City is often referred to as the "birthplace" of the Black Arts Movement, because it was home to many revolutionary Black artists and activists. However, the geographical diversity of the movement opposes the misconception that New York (and Harlem, especially) was the primary site of the movement. In its beginning states, the movement came together largely through printed media. Journals such as Liberator, The Crusader, and Freedomways created "a national community in which ideology and aesthetics were debated and a wide range of approaches to African-American artistic style and subject displayed." These publications tied communities outside of large Black Arts centers to the movement and gave the general black public access to these sometimes exclusive circles. As a literary movement, Black Arts had its roots in groups such as the Umbra Workshop. Umbra (1962) was a collective of young Black writers based in Manhattan's Lower East Side; major members were writers Steve Cannon, Tom Dent, Al Haynes, David Henderson, Calvin C. Hernton, Joe Johnson, Norman Pritchard, Lennox Raphael, Ishmael Reed, Lorenzo Thomas, James Thompson, Askia M. Touré (Roland Snellings; also a visual artist), Brenda Walcott, and musician-writer Archie Shepp. Touré, a major shaper of "cultural nationalism," directly influenced Jones. Along with Umbra writer Charles Patterson and Charles's brother, William Patterson, Touré joined Jones, Steve Young, and others at BARTS. Umbra, which produced Umbra Magazine, was the first post-civil rights Black literary group to make an impact as radical in the sense of establishing their own voice distinct from, and sometimes at odds with, the prevailing white literary establishment. The attempt to merge a black-oriented activist thrust with a primarily artistic orientation produced a classic split in Umbra between those who wanted to be activists and those who thought of themselves as primarily writers, though to some extent all members shared both views. Black writers have always had to face the issue of whether their work was primarily political or aesthetic. Moreover, Umbra itself had evolved out of similar circumstances: in 1960 a Black nationalist literary organization, On Guard for Freedom, had been founded on the Lower East Side by Calvin Hicks. Its members included Nannie and Walter Bowe, Harold Cruse (who was then working on The Crisis of the Negro Intellectual, 1967), Tom Dent, Rosa Guy, Joe Johnson, LeRoi Jones, and Sarah E. Wright, among others. On Guard was active in a famous protest at the United Nations of the American-sponsored Bay of Pigs Cuban invasion and was active in support of the Congolese liberation leader Patrice Lumumba. From On Guard, Dent, Johnson, and Walcott along with Hernton, Henderson, and Touré established Umbra. AuthorsAnother formation of black writers at that time was the Harlem Writers Guild, led by John O. Killens, which included Maya Angelou, Jean Carey Bond, Rosa Guy, and Sarah Wright among others. But the Harlem Writers Guild focused on prose, primarily fiction, which did not have the mass appeal of poetry performed in the dynamic vernacular of the time. Poems could be built around anthems, chants, and political slogans, and thereby used in organizing work, which was not generally the case with novels and short stories. Moreover, the poets could and did publish themselves, whereas greater resources were needed to publish fiction. That Umbra was primarily poetry- and performance-oriented established a significant and classic characteristic of the movement's aesthetics. When Umbra split up, some members, led by Askia Touré and Al Haynes, moved to Harlem in late 1964 and formed the nationalist-oriented Uptown Writers Movement, which included poets Yusef Rahman, Keorapetse "Willie" Kgositsile from South Africa, and Larry Neal. Accompanied by young "New Music" musicians, they performed poetry all over Harlem. Members of this group joined LeRoi Jones in founding BARTS. Jones's move to Harlem was short-lived. In December 1965 he returned to his home, Newark (N.J.), and left BARTS in serious disarray. BARTS failed but the Black Arts center concept was irrepressible, mainly because the Black Arts movement was so closely aligned with the then-burgeoning Black Power movement. The mid-to-late 1960s was a period of intense revolutionary ferment. Beginning in 1964, rebellions in Harlem and Rochester, New York, initiated four years of long hot summers. Watts, Detroit, Newark, Cleveland, and many other cities went up in flames, culminating in nationwide explosions of resentment and anger following Martin Luther King, Jr.'s April 1968 assassination. Nathan Hare, author of The Black Anglo-Saxons (1965), was the founder of 1960s Black Studies. Expelled from Howard University, Hare moved to San Francisco State University, where the battle to establish a Black Studies department was waged during a five-month strike during the 1968–69 school year. As with the establishment of Black Arts, which included a range of forces, there was broad activity in the Bay Area around Black Studies, including efforts led by poet and professor Sarah Webster Fabio at Merrit College. The initial thrust of Black Arts ideological development came from the Revolutionary Action Movement (RAM), a national organization with a strong presence in New York City. Both Touré and Neal were members of RAM. After RAM, the major ideological force shaping the Black Arts movement was the US (as opposed to "them") organization led by Maulana Karenga. Also ideologically important was Elijah Muhammad's Chicago-based Nation of Islam. These three formations provided both style and conceptual direction for Black Arts artists, including those who were not members of these or any other political organization. Although the Black Arts Movement is often considered a New York-based movement, two of its three major forces were located outside New York City. LocationsAs the movement matured, the two major locations of Black Arts' ideological leadership, particularly for literary work, were California's Bay Area because of the Journal of Black Poetry and The Black Scholar, and the Chicago–Detroit axis because of Negro Digest/Black World and Third World Press in Chicago, and Broadside Press and Naomi Long Madgett's Lotus Press in Detroit. The only major Black Arts literary publications to come out of New York were the short-lived (six issues between 1969 and 1972) Black Theatre magazine, published by the New Lafayette Theatre, and Black Dialogue, which had actually started in San Francisco (1964–68) and relocated to New York (1969–72). Although the journals and writing of the movement greatly characterized its success, the movement placed a great deal of importance on collective oral and performance art. Public collective performances drew a lot of attention to the movement, and it was often easier to get an immediate response from a collective poetry reading, short play, or street performance than it was from individual performances. The people involved in the Black Arts Movement used the arts as a way to liberate themselves. The movement served as a catalyst for many different ideas and cultures to come alive. This was a chance for African Americans to express themselves in a way that most would not have expected. In 1967 LeRoi Jones visited Karenga in Los Angeles and became an advocate of Karenga's philosophy of Kawaida. Kawaida, which produced the "Nguzo Saba" (seven principles), Kwanzaa, and an emphasis on African names, was a multifaceted, categorized activist philosophy. Jones also met Bobby Seale and Eldridge Cleaver and worked with a number of the founding members of the Black Panthers. Additionally, Askia Touré was a visiting professor at San Francisco State and was to become a leading (and long-lasting) poet as well as, arguably, the most influential poet-professor in the Black Arts movement. Playwright Ed Bullins and poet Marvin X had established Black Arts West, and Dingane Joe Goncalves had founded the Journal of Black Poetry (1966). This grouping of Ed Bullins, Dingane Joe Goncalves, LeRoi Jones, Sonia Sanchez, Askia M. Touré, and Marvin X became a major nucleus of Black Arts leadership. As the movement grew, ideological conflicts arose and eventually became too great for the movement to continue to exist as a large, coherent collective. The Black AestheticMany discussions of the Black Arts movement posit it as the "aesthetic and spiritual sister of the Black Power concept." The Black Aesthetic refers to ideologies and perspectives of art that center on Black culture and life. This Black Aesthetic encouraged the idea of Black separatism, and in trying to facilitate this, hoped to further strengthen black ideals, solidarity, and creativity. In his well-known essay on the Black Arts Movement, Larry Neal attests: "When we speak of a 'Black aesthetic' several things are meant. First, we assume that there is already in existence the basis for such an aesthetic. Essentially, it consists of an African-American cultural tradition. But this aesthetic is finally, by implication, broader than that tradition. It encompasses most of the usable elements of the Third World culture. The motive behind the Black aesthetic is the destruction of the white thing, the destruction of white ideas, and white ways of looking at the world." Major worksBlack ArtAmiri Baraka's poem "Black Art" serves as one of his most controversial, yet poetically profound supplements to the Black Arts Movement. In this piece, Baraka merges politics with art, criticizing poems that are not useful to or adequately representative of the Black struggle. First published in 1966, a period particularly known for the Civil Rights Movement, the political aspect of this piece underscores the need for a concrete and artistic approach to the realistic nature involving racism and injustice. Serving as the recognized artistic component to and having roots in the Civil Rights Movement, the Black Arts Movement aims to grant a political voice to black artists (including poets, dramatists, writers, musicians, etc.). Playing a vital role in this movement, Baraka calls out what he considers to be unproductive and assimilatory actions shown by political leaders during the Civil Rights Movement. He describes prominent Black leaders as being "on the steps of the white house...kneeling between the sheriff's thighs negotiating coolly for his people." Baraka also presents issues of euro-centric mentality, by referring to Elizabeth Taylor as a prototypical model in a society that influences perceptions of beauty, emphasizing its influence on individuals of white and black ancestry. Baraka aims his message toward the Black community, with the purpose of coalescing African Americans into a unified movement, devoid of white influences. "Black Art" serves as a medium for expression meant to strengthen that solidarity and creativity, in terms of the Black Aesthetic. Baraka believes poems should "shoot…come at you, love what you are" and not succumb to mainstream desires. He ties this approach into the emergence of hip-hop, which he paints as a movement that presents "live words…and live flesh and coursing blood." Baraka's cathartic structure and aggressive tone are comparable to the beginnings of hip-hop music, which created controversy in the realm of mainstream acceptance, because of its "authentic, un-distilled, unmediated forms of contemporary black urban music." Baraka believes that integration inherently takes away from the legitimacy of having a Black identity and Aesthetic in an anti-Black world. Through pure and unapologetic blackness, and with the absence of white influences, Baraka believes a black world can be achieved. Though hip-hop has been serving as a recognized salient musical form of the Black Aesthetic, a history of unproductive integration is seen across the spectrum of music, beginning with the emergence of a newly formed narrative in mainstream appeal in the 1950s. Much of Baraka's cynical disillusionment with unproductive integration can be drawn from the 50s, a period of rock and roll, in which "record labels actively sought to have white artists "cover" songs that were popular on the rhythm-and-blues charts" originally performed by African-American artists. The problematic nature of unproductive integration is also exemplified by Run-DMC, an American hip-hop group founded in 1981, who became widely accepted after a calculated collaboration with the rock group Aerosmith on a remake of the latter's "Walk This Way" took place in 1986, evidently appealing to young white audiences. Hip-hop emerged as an evolving genre of music that continuously challenged mainstream acceptance, most notably with the development of rap in the 1990s. A significant and modern example of this is Ice Cube, a well-known American rapper, songwriter, and actor, who introduced subgenre of hip-hop known as "gangsta rap," merged social consciousness and political expression with music. With the 1960s serving as a more blatantly racist period of time, Baraka notes the revolutionary nature of hip-hop, grounded in the unmodified expression through art. This method of expression in music parallels significantly with Baraka's ideals presented in "Black Art," focusing on poetry that is also productively and politically driven. "The Revolutionary Theatre""The Revolutionary Theatre" is a 1965 essay by Baraka that was an important contribution to the Black Arts Movement, discussing the need for change through literature and theater arts. He says: "We will scream and cry, murder, run through the streets in agony, if it means some soul will be moved, moved to actual life understanding of what the world is, and what it ought to be." Baraka wrote his poetry, drama, fiction and essays in a way that would shock and awaken audiences to the political concerns of black Americans, which says much about what he was doing with this essay. It also did not seem coincidental to him that Malcolm X and John F. Kennedy had been assassinated within a few years, since Baraka believed that every voice of change in America had been murdered, which led to the writing that would come out of the Black Arts Movement. In his essay, Baraka says: "The Revolutionary Theatre is shaped by the world, and moves to reshape the world, using as its force the natural force and perpetual vibrations of the mind in the world. We are history and desire, what we are, and what any experience can make us." With his thought-provoking ideals and references to a euro-centric society, he imposes the notion that black Americans should stray from a white aesthetic in order to find a black identity. In his essay, he says: "The popular white man's theatre like the popular white man's novel shows tired white lives, and the problems of eating white sugar, or else it herds bigcaboosed blondes onto huge stages in rhinestones and makes believe they are dancing or singing." This, having much to do with a white aesthetic, further proves what was popular in society and even what society had as an example of what everyone should aspire to be, like the "bigcaboosed blondes" that went "onto huge stages in rhinestones". Furthermore, these blondes made believe they were "dancing and singing" which Baraka seems to be implying that white people dancing is not what dancing is supposed to be at all. These allusions bring forth the question of where black Americans fit in the public eye. Baraka says: "We are preaching virtue and feeling, and a natural sense of the self in the world. All men live in the world, and the world ought to be a place for them to live." Baraka's essay challenges the idea that there is no space in politics or in society for black Americans to make a difference through different art forms that consist of, but are not limited to, poetry, song, dance, and art. Effects on societyAccording to the Academy of American Poets, "many writers--Native Americans, Latinos/as, gays and lesbians, and younger generations of African Americans have acknowledged their debt to the Black Arts Movement." The movement lasted for about a decade, through the mid-1960s and into the 1970s. This was a period of controversy and change in the world of literature. One major change came through in the portrayal of new ethnic voices in the United States. English-language literature, prior to the Black Arts Movement, was dominated by white authors. African Americans became a greater presence not only in the field of literature but in all areas of the arts. Theater groups, poetry performances, music and dance were central to the movement. Through different forms of media, African Americans were able to educate others about the expression of cultural differences and viewpoints. In particular, black poetry readings allowed African Americans to use vernacular dialogues. This was shown in the Harlem Writers Guild, which included black writers such as Maya Angelou and Rosa Guy. These performances were used to express political slogans and as a tool for organization. Theater performances also were used to convey community issues and organizations. The theaters, as well as cultural centers, were based throughout America and were used for community meetings, study groups and film screenings. Newspapers were a major tool in spreading the Black Arts Movement. In 1964, Black Dialogue was published, making it the first major Arts movement publication. The Black Arts Movement, although short, is essential to the history of the United States. It spurred political activism and use of speech throughout every African-American community. It allowed African Americans the chance to express their voices in the mass media as well as become involved in communities. It can be argued that "the Black Arts movement produced some of the most exciting poetry, drama, dance, music, visual art, and fiction of the post-World War II United States" and that many important "post-Black artists" such as Toni Morrison, Ntozake Shange, Alice Walker, and August Wilson were shaped by the movement. The Black Arts Movement also provided incentives for public funding of the arts and increased public support of various arts initiatives. Associated writers and thinkersDon EvansMari EvansSarah Webster FabioHoyt W. FullerNikki GiovanniRosa GuyHarlem Writers GuildDavid HendersonAudre LordeDudley RandallSonia SanchezRelated exhibitions and conferencesThe Arts Council of England's (ACE) Decibel initiative produced a summary in 2003 in association with The Guardian newspaper. An international exhibition, Back to Black — Art, Cinema and the Racial Imaginary, was held at the Whitechapel Gallery in 2005. A 2006 major conference Should Black Art Still Be Beautiful?, organized by OOM Gallery and Midwest, examined the development of contemporary Black cultural practice and its future in Britain. On April 1, 2006, New Art Gallery, Walsall, UK, held a conference in honour of the late Donald Rodney. Gallery 32 and Its Circle, a 2009 art exhibition hosted at Loyola Mount University's Laband Art Gallery, featured artwork displayed the eponymous gallery, which featured black artists in the Los Angeles area and played an integral role in the Black Arts movement in the area. A recently redeveloped African and Asian Visual Arts Archive is located at the University of East London (UEL).While African American art of the 18th and 19th centuries continued to reflect African artistic traditions, the earliest fine art made by professional African American artists was in an academic Western style. Among the leading black sculptors of the 19th century were Eugene Warbourg and Mary Edmonia Lewis, the first professional African American sculptor. The most distinguished African American artist who worked in the 19th century was Henry Ossawa Tanner, who painted African American genre subjects and reflects the realist tradition. In the early 20th century, the most important aesthetic movement in African American art was the Harlem Renaissance or the ‘New Negro’ movement of the 1920s. The Harlem district of New York became the ‘cultural capital of black America’. Practicing in New York, Stuart Davis was heavily influenced by African American culture and jazz music, though he was not an African American. Aaron Douglas consciously incorporated African imagery into his work. The most important African American photographer of that period was James Van Der Zee, who photographed people and scenes in Harlem for more than 50 years. During and immediately after World War II there arose to prominence a new school of African American artists, many of whom were the so-called ‘children of the Harlem Renaissance’. During the 1950s African American art was dominated by Abstract Expressionism and realism; their significant practitioners included Charles Alston, Romare Bearden and James Wells. In the 1960s and 1970s new classifications appeared in African American art based on continuing developments in abstract art and the rise of the figurative style known as Black Expressionism. The most prominent African American abstract painter was Sam Gilliam, based in Washington, DC. Martin Puryear emerged during the 1980s as a leading African American abstract sculptor. In the 1980s African American art was the subject of a number of pioneering exhibitions, such as Black Art—Ancestral Legacy: The African Impulse in African American Art (Dallas Museum of Art, 1989), that brought together the works of African, Caribbean and African American academic and folk artists. Today’s artists, such as Kara Walker and Fred Wilson, continue to grapple with the complex issues of African American history and identity in contemporary visual art.